NEWSPAPERS, HEBREW

This article is arranged according to the following outline: - the spread of the hebrew press - main stages of development - In Europe Through the Early 1880s - ideology of the early press - in europe until world war i - in europe between the wars - the duration of the hebrew periodicals - the leading periodicals and newspapers in europe - the first "" yearbooks and periodicals - in germany - in austro-hungary - the second "" early newspapers - linguistic and ideological development - hebrew dailies - the end of the hebrew press in eastern europe and russia - the hebrew press in north america - list of hebrew newspapers and periodicals The term "Hebrew press" has undergone a basic metamorphosis since its early days. Originally, the term covered periodicals of varying frequency (yearbooks, monthlies, and irregular publications), the majority of which were literary and scientific in character, while only a small percentage were devoted to current affairs. News sections were almost nonexistent, and indeed would have been impractical in periodicals appearing infrequently. The first Hebrew newspaper worthy of the name, according to the concept of the time, began to appear in the mid-19th century, giving news of the Jewish and general world and containing literary, scientific, and social columns. Articles on public and current affairs, which were rare in the Hebrew periodicals of the previous 100 years, became increasingly popular in some journals. Thus a differentiation was created between the newspaper and other types of periodicals. The periodicals, too, began to modify their form and gradually devoted more attention to current affairs. All types of periodicals, therefore, must be included within the term "Hebrew press" in its first century (1750–1856). Following this period, a gradual differentiation set in between scholarly and literary periodicals and purely news media. This development was particularly noticeable in Ereẓ Israel where Hebrew became a living language, and periodicals began to appear, covering every field – literature, art, science, technology – while the daily newspaper grew to resemble its counterpart in European journalism. -THE SPREAD OF THE HEBREW PRESS The Hebrew press began in Western Europe, mainly in Germany, in the second half of the 18th century. It gradually spread to Austria, and Galicia, and, a century after its initiation, appeared in czarist Russia, where there were more Hebrew readers. As the press began to flourish there, it declined in Western Europe. About the same time, a Hebrew press of an essentially Eastern European nature began to appear in Ereẓ Israel. The waves of Jewish emigration to the United States in the second half of the 19th century brought about the establishment of   a Hebrew press in that country too (from the 1870s). Smaller centers of the Hebrew press were also established in England, South Africa, and, in later periods, in Latin America. Two factors determined the expansion or decline of the Hebrew press in the Diaspora: the degree of attachment to Hebrew of the Jews of a particular country, and the extent to which they acquired its native tongue. By the late 1930s the Hebrew press had almost disappeared in Eastern Europe. In Soviet Russia its decline had been deliberately encouraged, while in Poland it was brought about by competition from Polish and Yiddish. By contrast, the Hebrew press flourished in Ereẓ Israel: from modest beginnings in Jerusalem in 1863, it gradually and confidently expanded, becoming the focal point of the Hebrew press after World War I, with its center in Tel Aviv-Jaffa. Since World War II, the Hebrew press in Eastern Europe has ceased to exist; outside Israel, several periodicals are still published with varying frequency, mainly in the United States. A real Hebrew press, encompassing daily papers and periodicals covering a range of subjects, now exists only in Israel. While, in its early years, the Hebrew press constituted only a small percentage of the total Jewish press in all languages, by the outbreak of World War II it held fourth place in the Jewish press (after English, German, and Yiddish). Today, as a result of the expansion of the Hebrew press in Israel, it holds second place (after English), and, quantitatively, accounts for more than one-quarter of the total Jewish press in all languages. -MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT In Europe through the Early 1880s One of the earliest consequences of the Haskalah movement in Germany was the creation of Hebrew periodicals, such as those published in Germany and devoted to literature, philosophy, and social problems. This initial stage, which lasted almost a century (approximately 1750–1856), was inaugurated by the periodical kohelet mussar , edited by moses mendelssohn . The differing intervals at which the variety of periodicals at this time were published was a decisive factor in determining the contents of those periodicals: much space was given over to belles lettres, translations, world literature, and various aspects of Judaic studies while very little was devoted to news matters. In this early period Hebrew began to adapt itself to modern expression, gradually discarding its cloak of sanctity and adopting neologisms and new literary forms. During the second stage (1856–86), current affairs were gradually introduced, at first by simply citing belatedly news items from other papers. Gradually, however, the traditions of the modern press developed, ranging from reports by regular correspondents to lead articles and political commentary, simultaneously continuing the traditions of the earlier Hebrew periodicals, by devoting considerable space to all subjects. The periodical press also continued to develop as before, improving its standards and its form. The interrelation between these two areas of the press is reflected in the fact that the same writers contributed to both. The Russian censorship constituted a great hindrance to the development of journalism on public affairs, and editors consequently became adept at disguising statements in phraseology whose hidden meaning was clear to their own readers. Hebrew papers appearing outside Russia were also compelled to restrain their political commentaries, since most of their readers lived in Russia, where the papers might be banned. This accounts for the remarkable panegyrics on the czarist regime, which should not be taken at face value. IDEOLOGY OF THE EARLY PRESS Up to the early 1880s, the main trend was the dissemination of the Haskalah and its program for attaining equal rights. This ideology resulted in several by-products: the appeal for the creation of a productive Jewish economy by means of agricultural settlement in Russia or by engaging in crafts, and for the improvement of Jewish education by replacing the old-fashioned methods of the ḥeder with the teaching of secular subjects and vocational skills. After the anti-Jewish pogroms in southern Russia in the early 1880s, however, Haskalah ideology changed, and almost all the newspapers and periodicals now supported the Ḥibbat Zion movement. Only ha-maggid had anticipated this new ideology by 20 years. Attitudes to the movement ranged from hostility (Ivri Anokhi) or hesitant support (Ha-Ẓefirah ) to complete identification (Ha-Maggid and later Ha-Meliẓ ). Throughout this period, the press gradually progressed technically, nurturing several generations of writers of all types. Indeed, there is hardly a Hebrew writer who did not take his first literary steps in one of the newspapers. Some outstanding writers, such as J.L. Gordon , also served as editors, acting as patrons to many others. Two events, however, disturbed the peace of the press. The first, in the late 1860s and early 1870s, was the controversy regarding religious reform, sparked by its two chief advocates, moses leib lilienblum and J.L. Gordon, mainly in Ha-Meliẓ, and taken up by the extreme and moderate Orthodox elements in ha-levanon . The second event, less significant at the time as regards public reaction and support, but important historically, was the appearance of the socialist organs, Ha-Emet and Asefat Ḥakhamim , edited by A.S. Liebermann , morris vinchevsky , and others. These journals attracted a considerable number of writers and contributors and served as a platform for those discontented with the czarist regime on the one hand, and with the traditional Jewish way of life on the other. In Europe until World War I The third stage in the Hebrew press was inaugurated by the establishment of the first Hebrew daily ha-yom edited by J.L. Kantor (St. Petersburg) – a revolutionary event, the novelty of which is now hard to appreciate. For the first time the Hebrew press and the Hebrew language were faced with the challenge of dealing, journalistically and linguistically, with day-to-day events. Ha-Yom introduced many innovations and experiments. Despite the gradual disappearance of florid and involved phraseology (meliẓah) in all types of literature, it was still used in Hebrew journalistic writing. The new paper gradually eradicated its last traces. To meet the competition,   Ha-Ẓefirah and Ha-Meliẓ also became dailies in the same year (1886). All at once, a tradition of modern Hebrew journalism developed. Although almost all the Hebrew papers now shared the ideology of Ḥibbat Zion, they varied both in their local color – Ha-Ẓefirah being Polish and Ha-Meliẓ Russian – and in their particular stands within the Ḥibbat Zion movement. The Hebrew press of Eastern Europe had now reached a peak which it was to sustain until World War I. A modern press in the true sense of the word, it attracted the best Hebrew writers of almost three generations, and Hebrew literature, in turn, flourished, as it spread to the many and varied literary publications of the day. Both Aḥad Ha-Am and bialik , key figures of Hebrew literature, were nurtured by this press. Though the first Russian Revolution (1905) temporarily halted this development, it resumed shortly afterward, ending only with World War I. There was a brief but glorious and unparalleled era in the history of the Hebrew press and periodicals in Russia after the fall of the czarist regime in 1917. However, the Soviet regime soon declared the Hebrew language counterrevolutionary and suppressed all Hebrew publication. In Europe between the Wars The former heights were never regained in Poland between the wars. In the 1930s, after a long struggle for survival, the only daily Hebrew paper ceased publication. It was replaced by the weekly Ba-Derekh, and there were years when only the pioneer youth movements maintained Hebrew newspapers in Poland. Some Hebrew journals survived within the framework of the underground movements in Nazi-occupied Poland, but ceased to exist after World War II. Through the efforts of determined individuals, the Hebrew press in other countries, such as England, survived, and appeared regularly for years (cf. Suwalski's Ha-Yehudi). But most of the papers and journals published outside Central Europe were short-lived, since their sole support came from emigrants from the East. As these readers acquired the language of their new country, circulation dropped, and the periodicals ceased publication. Apart from Ereẓ Israel, only in North America is there an uninterrupted tradition of Hebrew periodicals. The one characteristic common to most Hebrew papers and periodicals over the years and throughout the world (with the exception of the extreme Orthodox and left-wing) is their strong attachment to Ḥibbat Zion, Zionism, and the State of Israel. There is an organic fusing of language and Israel content, overlapping their Jewish content. In this they are unique. -THE DURATION OF THE HEBREW PERIODICALS Only a very small percentage of Hebrew newspapers and periodicals enjoyed longevity. The record until 1970 was held by the weekly Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir (63 years), the dailies haaretz (57) and davar (45) – all in Israel – and the weekly Hadoar (49) in the United States. In earlier periods the record was held by Ha-Maggid (47 years), Ha-Ẓefirah (almost 50, with short intervals), and Ha-Meliẓ (43). The latter two began as weeklies and later became dailies. The periodical Ha-Shilo'aḥ appeared in 46 volumes. Longevity is not always, however, an indication of the importance of the paper. Some short-lived papers, like the daily Ha-Ẓofeh at the turn of the 20th century, were of vital importance. There were also papers which appeared for decades under different names so as to evade censorship or because of licensing problems as was the case with ben-yehuda 's papers in Jerusalem. -THE LEADING PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS IN EUROPE The First Period: Yearbooks and Periodicals Kohelet Musar, published by Mendelssohn (about 1750), was the first attempt at translating traditional ethical concepts into a modern idiom. IN GERMANY Although the initial experiment was short-lived, it was revived in 1783 by a group of Mendelssohn's disciples who published Ha-Me'assef, the first modern Hebrew periodical. Appearing sporadically in several German towns between 1783 and 1811, it had considerable influence on the general evolvement of Hebrew Haskalah literature and, in particular, on that of the Hebrew press, both in style (as "purely" biblical as possible) and content (e.g., original and translated belles lettres, and studies of various aspects of Judaism). Ha-Me'assef dealt extensively with current affairs, but its main goal – the attainment of the Haskalah – was achieved at a more rapid rate than the editors and participants had ever anticipated. German Jewry, accultured to its society, no longer needed a Hebrew journal. As a result, from the first third of the 19th century, the focal point of the Hebrew Haskalah began to shift to Austria, relying mainly upon readers in Galicia, Moravia, and Italy. IN AUSTRO-HUNGARY The new periodical press in Austro-Hungary, which both culturally (i.e., Jewish culture) and geographically lay on the border between West and East, was inaugurated by the yearbooks bikkurei ha-ittim , Kerem Ḥemed , Kokhevei Yiẓḥak, Oẓar Neḥmad, Bikkurim – which appeared for over 40 years (1821–65), mainly in Vienna, but also in Prague and Berlin. Varied in content, they attracted the best of the Haskalah writers. At the same time, periodicals and literary collections began to appear at regular intervals in various parts of Galicia, serving as a nursery for modern Hebrew literature by creating the science of Judaic studies and by adapting the Hebrew language to modern belles lettres. The pioneers of Hebrew periodicals in Germany and Austria were closely attached to the German language, as is evidenced by German sections (printed in Hebrew characters) in the first volumes of Bikkurei ha-Ittim, and by the many translations from that language. In contrast to the above-mentioned periodicals, which allotted little or no space to current events, Zion, edited by I.M. Jost and M. Creizenach , prevailed on East European writers to participate in discussions on contemporary affairs. An examination of the language and style of these periodicals reveals how the Hebrew language developed in liveliness   and suppleness from one issue to the next. Recent studies (particularly those by dov sadan ) of the florid meliẓah style of the early maskilim have demonstrated that this style did not, as was formerly believed, contain biblical elements exclusively, but rather drew from the linguistic and cultural traditions of centuries of Hebrew language and literature. As a result of the intimate acquaintance which the writers of this period had with the Bible and its study over the generations, their biblical commentaries are full of valuable insights. Since, in general, the periodical press was imbued with the spirit of the moderate Haskalah, elements from all movements could contribute to it, and it managed to remain as neutral as possible, apart from sharp polemics against extreme Reform Judaism as practiced by geiger . This tradition of neutrality was maintained in the Hebrew press outside Ereẓ Israel as a rule, although there were periodicals that expressed more extreme views, e.g., the extreme Orthodox Shomer Ẓiyyon ha-Ne'eman, and the radical He-Ḥalutz . The Second Period: Early Newspapers These periodicals constituted a 100-year-long preparation for a regular journal with the form and content of a newspaper. Such a newspaper, Ha-Maggid, which appeared in 1856 in Lyck, eastern Prussia, on the Russian border, thus inaugurating the second period of the Hebrew press, was meant for Russian Jewry. The only periodical which Russian Jewry had hitherto produced, Pirkei Ẓafon, enjoyed only two issues (1841 and 1844. before it ceased publication. With Ha-Maggid A.L. Silbermann, the editor, created not only a new organ for Russian Jewry but also the first Hebrew newspaper that devoted considerable space to reportage and editorial comment on the news. As such, the new paper required different tools from those employed in earlier periodicals. It also introduced other innovations, e.g., a section containing translations of news items from the general press which are to be found in almost every issue; other periodicals followed suit. The Hebrew language gradually evolved into a living language, even though it retained a considerable amount of meliẓah. Ha-Maggid was also the pioneer in two other aspects: in the early 1860s it began to advocate Ḥibbat Zion and the settlement of Ereẓ Israel, while all the other newspapers remained attached to the Haskalah ideology till the early 1880s; for many years it was the only paper of general Jewish character that reflected events in all the Jewish communities, including the United States and Australia. Immediately after its establishment, four other newspapers sprang up (1860–62), which dealt primarily with events in their own geographical area: Ha-Meliẓ (Odessa-St. Petersburg) for Russian Jewry; ha-karmel (Vilna) for Lithuanian Jewry; Ha-Mevasser (LVOV) for the Jews of Galicia; and Ha-Ẓefirah (Warsaw and, for a short period, Berlin) for Polish Jews. (Originally devoted to science, Ha-Ẓefirah's later concern, under the editorship of sokolow , was primarily news.) All these newspapers covered current events, but likewise continued their traditions by devoting special columns to belles lettres, science, and criticism, so that even today it is difficult to envisage a Hebrew paper without such columns. These papers still constitute a rich source for Jewish scholarship; only the lack of indexes prevents their being utilized properly. The papers also stimulated additional literary forms, for which there had not been room in periodicals, and developed reportage from provincial towns and, later, from overseas. Although this reportage may contain trivia, it also constitutes an extremely rich source of information on Jewish communities throughout the world. LINGUISTIC AND IDEOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT A superficial comparison of a newspaper of 1856 with one of 1886 is sufficient proof of the radical development of the Hebrew press in this second stage. A new language had been created which differed greatly from that of Ha-Me'assef or even Ha-Maggid in their first years. There was also a change in the ideological content. Reality, and particularly the pogroms in southern Russia in the early 1880s, made Jews aware of the failure of the Haskalah's proposed solutions to the Jewish problem. There was, therefore, a gradual transition from the old ideals of the Haskalah and the Emancipation to the new ones of settlement of Ereẓ Israel, Zionism and, finally, political Zionism. The distinction between the periodical press and newspapers was still obscure, since current affairs began to play a more important role in the former. Such was the case with smolenskin 's monthly Ha-Shaḥar , in which an attempt was made, particularly by the editor himself, to clarify Jewish problems, both past and future, and which first arrived at the ideology of "the people of the spirit." It then took up nationalism and Zionism, strongly criticizing the Haskalah and its methods. The same is true of its rival, Ha-Boker Or, edited by A.B. Gottlober , which defended Mendelssohn's school of thought. The articles on Judaica in these publications became more popular and readable as a result of the growing flexibility of the language, while their scientific basis was not impaired. Hebrew Dailies In the meantime, the editors were obliged to enlarge the format of their papers and to produce them at greater frequency than the original weeklies. In 1886, exactly 30 years after the publication of the first issue of Ha-Maggid, J.L. Kantor published Ha-Yom, the first Hebrew daily. To meet the competition, Ha-Meliẓ and Ha-Ẓefirah also began to be published as dailies. The letters of J.L. Gordon (then editor of Ha-Meliẓ), who frowned upon this new development, show the difficulties that faced Hebrew editors. Conditions, however, forced them to accept the new burden. In the daily press it was essential to eliminate florid Hebrew, since the need for rapid translations of news dispatches left no time for complicated phraseology. From 1886, the feuilleton which had existed before the development of the daily press became an integral part of the dailies, particularly of Ha-Yom, to which D. Frischmann and J.L. Katzenelson (known as Buki ben Yogli) contributed. Ha-Meliẓ and Ha-Ẓefirah continued, of necessity, to appear as dailies even after Ha-Yom ceased publication (1888). The oldest of the papers, Ha-Maggid, remained a weekly, until discontinued in 1903.   In the mid-1880s, Sokolow – a man whose grasp of the spirit of the times was almost unique in his generation of Hebrew journalism – radically changed the periodical press. In 1884 he began to publish Ha-Asif, weighty annuals encompassing almost all the literary forms. Enjoying unprecedented circulation, their success spurred others to issue similar annuals (e.g., Keneset Yisrael by S.P. Rabinowitz , 1886). It was a new development for Hebrew periodicals to reach thousands of readers, all of them subscribers. The publication of Ha-Asif is therefore frequently regarded as the first literary event which created a mass Hebrew readership. Innumerable periodicals, almost all of them short-lived, appeared in the last third of the 19th century in various places in Eastern Europe, and, occasionally in the West (mainly on Judaica or as appendixes to the German Jewish press). An important contribution to the rapid adaptation of Hebrew to everyday life was made by the numerous translations in the press, periodicals, and separate books, some of which were to become classics (particularly in the field of poetry). In the early 1880s even the Orthodox Ha-Levanon ceased its ideological polemics with the other papers and, because of its editor, J. Brill , joined in preaching the settlement of Ereẓ Israel and Ḥibbat Zion. Simultaneously, an Orthodox anti-Zionist press arose, e.g., Ha-Peles, Ha-Modi'a, Ha-Kol, which copied the modern style of the pro-Zionist press. In the 1870s the first two Hebrew socialist journals appeared, Ha-Emet, and Asefat Ḥakhamim, edited by A.S. Liebermann, M. Vinchevsky, and others. These journals, which were short-lived because of the attitude of the East and West European authorities, created a new Hebrew by introducing terms taken from socialism and communism, and by translations. At the beginning of the present century, the two veteran papers, Ha-Maggid and Ha-Meliẓ, closed down. As if to symbolize the rise of a new and younger generation in literature and in the press, two new dailies were established in Poland and Russia: Ha-Ẓofeh, in Warsaw, and Ha-Zeman, first in St. Petersburg, later in Vilna. A new generation of writers and journalists was nurtured by these papers. Ha-Ẓofeh was the first paper to hold a literary competition (1903). In that competition Y.D. Berkowitz was discovered. At the same time, Ha-Ẓefirah reappeared after a lengthy interval. In 1904 the weekly Ha-Miẓpeh , edited by S.M. Lazar, began to appear in Cracow, in place of Ha-Maggid, and encouraged many new writers (including S.Y. Agnon , A. Hameiri , U.Ẓ. greenberg , and Z. Diesendruck ). In none of these papers was there a clear distinction between the literary and journalistic realms. The best of the Hebrew writers of the period contributed to them (e.g., fichmann , bershadsky , shneour , Berkowitz). The End of the Hebrew Press in Eastern Europe and Russia The most outstanding of these literary periodicals was the monthly, Ha-Shilo'aḥ, edited by Aḥad Ha-Am and, later, by J. Klausner; others included Ha-Dor, edited by Frischmann, Ha-Zeman, the annuals Lu'aḥ Aḥi'asaf and Sokolow's Sefer ha-Shanah. ha-olam , the official Hebrew organ of the Zionist Organization, for decades provided opportunities for Hebrew writers. It would be hard to envisage the development of the young Hebrew literature that flourished at this time – starting with Bialik – without the periodicals of the early 20th century. Although this vital period came to an abrupt end with the outbreak of World War I, its influence could be felt almost until the 1960s. The Hebrew press in Eastern Europe never recovered its former glory after World War I but gradually flickered out. In Russia, after the downfall of czarism, Hebrew literary activity flourished briefly with the appearance of the literary journals ha-tekufah , Massu'ot, He-Avar, Ha-Mishpat ha-Ivri, Ereẓ, and others, and the establishment of literary projects of formerly unknown scope (e.g., Stybel publishing house). The weekly Ha-Am, which later became a daily, also began to appear in this period. Soviet Russia's silencing of the Hebrew language, however, put an end to all this, a circumstance which has persisted, apart from certain isolated periodicals published in Russia, or published abroad by Russian Hebrew writers. The departure from Russia of the great majority of Hebrew writers, beginning with Bialik, marks the end of Hebrew literature and journalism in that country, and the gradual shift of its focal point to Palestine, via Berlin. The papers and literary journals set up in Western Europe from the turn of the century till the 1930s and 1940s were a natural continuation of the Eastern European tradition. With one notable exception – Ha-Yehudi, edited in London from 1897 to 1913 by I. Suwalski – they were all short-lived. Another London-based journal, whose effect was in inverse ratio to its duration, was J.Ḥ. Brenner 's Ha-Me'orer (1906–07). While the extreme Orthodox circles, having adopted methods of the secular press, attacked Zionism, the press of the Orthodox mizrachi zionist organization , which opposed the secular movement, fought anti-Zionist Orthodox elements. It established the monthly Ha-Mizraḥ (1903) as well as the weeklies Ha-Ivri (first in Berlin and later in New York) and Ha-Mizraḥi in Poland after World War I. Toward the end of the 19th century the Hebrew press in Eastern Europe began to produce more specialized journals. An educational press which lasted for decades was developed in Russia and Poland; magazines for children and youth began to appear, some of them of extremely high standard, such as Olam Katan, edited by S.L. Gordon . I.H. Tawiow even put out a daily for children (He-Ḥaver; see Children's Literature ). Poland became the major Hebrew center in Eastern Europe between the wars after that language had been silenced in Soviet Russia. Its one Hebrew daily, however, Ha-Ẓefirah, could not survive in the face of the growing competition from Yiddish, on the one hand, and Polish, on the other. Ha-Ẓefirah closed down, was revived under another name (Ha-Yom), revived again under its old name, and finally discontinued in the early 1930s. For several years, it was replaced by the weekly, Ba-Derekh, the last Hebrew paper in Poland, which later also closed down. A unique phenomenon, particularly in Poland between the wars, was the press of the He-Ḥalutz and the pioneering youth movements, especially that of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir . At   a time when Hebrew was abandoned in Poland even by the official Zionist Organization (the press of which was mainly in Yiddish and Polish), and Hebrew readers could no longer support the burden of maintaining a Hebrew paper, the youth movements safeguarded Hebrew expression (and speech) with unbounded loyalty and material sacrifice. For these young people, the Hebrew language and pioneer training were stepping stones to Zionist self-realization. Thus He-Halutz issued the paper He-Atid, and Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓair, its organ, bearing that movement's name; other youth movements followed suit. This press was noted for its ties with Ereẓ Israel and its constant contact with the labor press there. (Getzel Kressel) -THE HEBREW PRESS IN NORTH AMERICA Unlike the Anglo-Jewish, German-Jewish, and Yiddish presses in the United States, all of which have served large bodies of readers who often were literate in their native tongue alone, the Hebrew press was restricted from the outset to a relatively small coterie of subscribers. Nevertheless, a Hebrew periodical press has existed practically uninterrupted in the United States since the last decades of the 19th century. The first Hebrew periodical in the United States, zvi hirsch bernstein 's newsletter Ha-Ẓofeh ba-Areẓ ha-Ḥadashah ("The Observer in a New Land") appeared in 1871, a year after the first two Yiddish journals in America, one of which was Bernstein's New York Juedische Post. In their early years, in fact, the two presses frequently had intertwined fates: the same publishers, editors, and writers played active roles in both. Ha-Ẓofeh ba-Areẓ ha-Ḥadashah appeared irregularly until 1876. Hebrew was also one of four languages to appear in Bernstein's Hebrew News, an unusual polyglot venture published for several months in 1871. A number of Hebrew periodicals appeared briefly in New York in the 1880s and 1890s, many of them largely one-man productions. Among them were the Ḥovevei Zion organ Ha-Le'ummi ("The Nationalist," 1888–89), the maskil Ezekiel Enowitz's Ha-Emet ("The Truth," 1894–95) and Eẓ ha-Da'at ("The Tree of Knowledge," 1896), michael rodkinson 's Ha-Sanegor ("The Defender," 1890) and Tekhunat Ru'aḥ ha-Yisre'eli ("The Spirit of the Israelite," 1899), and abraham rosenberg 's Ner ha-Ma'aravi ("The Western Light," 1895–97). Somewhat longer lived were zeev wolf schur 's Ha-Pisgah ("The Summit"), published irregularly in New York, Baltimore, and Chicago from 1891 to 1899, and Ha-Ivri ("The Hebrew," 1892–98, 1901–02), which was founded by the Yiddish publisher kasriel sarasohn and edited by Gershon Rosenzweig. The first attempt to publish a Hebrew daily in the U.S. took place in New York in 1909 with the appearance of Ha-Yom ("The Day") under the editorship of moses hacohen goldman , but the paper failed within a brief time, as did an effort to revive it in 1913. The latter year also witnessed the launching of the literary monthly Ha-Toren ("The Mast," weekly from 1916 to 1921), which in quality of contents and regularity of appearance far surpassed any of its predecessors. Edited originally by a staff composed of such eminent Hebraists as max lipson , daniel persky , abraham goldberg , Y.D. Berkowitz, and benjamin silkiner , Ha-Toren was managed from 1919 until its demise in 1925 by the author reuben brainin . Contemporary with it was the literary and political Mizrachi weekly Ha-Ivri ("The Hebrew," New York, 1916–21), edited by meir berlin , who had previously managed the same journal in Germany. The most successful and permanent of all Hebrew periodicals in the United States, however, was the weekly Hadoar ("The Post"). Started as a daily in 1921 by a staff directed by Lipson and including Persky, hirsch leib gordon , Abraham Orlans, and menachem ribalow , Hadoar was briefly discontinued in the summer of 1922 and then resumed publication as a weekly under the auspices of the histadruth ivrith of america . In 1925 Menachem Ribalow became sole editor, a position he held for nearly 30 years. During this period, except for a brief hiatus in 1925, Hadoar appeared every week in spite of continual financial straits, publishing Hebrew authors of note from all over the world and especially numbering among its steady contributors such U.S. Hebrew writers as hillel bavli , moshe feinstein , reuven grossman , simon halkin , ephraim lisitzky , Daniel Persky, gabriel preil , abraham regelson , zvi scharfstein , eisig silberschlag , yochanan twersky , meyer waxman , and reuven wallenrod . From 1934, Hadoar issued a biweekly youth supplement titled Ha-Musaf la-Kore ha-Ẓa'ir. Ribalow was succeeded as editor in 1953 by moses maisels , who was in turn followed in 1959 by Moshe Yinon. Hadoar's circulation in 1970 was about 5,000. It attempted to reconstitute as a quality journal but was unsuccessful. It ceased publication in the early 21st century. In addition to Hadoar, the literary monthly Bitzaron was published in New York from 1939 until 1992. Though the establishment of the State of Israel led to a broadening of interest in Hebrew among the U.S. Jewish public, the local Hebrew press has not grown as a result; the reasons are many. Air transportation has allowed the quick distribution of Israeli publications in the United States. Additionally, American Hebraists preferred to write for the much larger Israeli audience and also to read the best of Hebrew literature in Israeli publications. The introduction of the Internet made some Hebrew language publications in the United States superfluous. Some Hebrew newspapers are published in the United States, primarily in New York and Los Angeles, for the Israeli community living the United States. Printed locally, they most often contain reprints of articles that have appeared in Israeli newspapers and advertisements aimed at the local American-Israeli community. For Hebrew newspapers in Ereẓ Israel and the State of Israel, see israel , State of: Cultural Life (Press). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: F.M. Brody, AJHSP, 33 (1934), 127–70; M.G. Brown, AJHSQ, 59 (1969), 139–78; D. Persky, Sefer ha-Yovel shel Hadoar (1952); H.M. Rotblatt, The Chicago Pinkas (1952); E.R. Malachi, Hadoar, 12 (1931–32), 515, 533, 548; 13 (1932–33), 44, 76, 140. (Hillel Halkin / Michael Berenbaum (2nd ed.)   -LIST OF HEBREW NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS Since the 1920s the Hebrew press, particularly in Ereẓ Israel, has greatly and rapidly developed. From the point of view of quantity it exceeds, several fold, all the Hebrew press from its beginning until that time. Consequently, the following list is, of necessity, very selective and only the outstanding Hebrew newspapers and periodicals in all the countries and periods have been included. One of the aims of the list has been to provide a representative sampling of the vast professional and light literature press in the State of Israel, a sampling which is likewise very selective. Jubilee and memorial volumes, periodicals of all types of educational institutions (from primary school to university), newspapers issued by individual settlements in Israel (of which there are hundreds), house organs of institutions, organizations, factories, and social and political movements, etc. have not been included. There is however a small sampling of Israel governmental publications: for the rest see Reshimat Pirsumei ha-Memshalah ("List of Government Publications") which appears quarterly. The dates of the newspapers listed present a special problem in that it has not always been possible to transalte the Hebrew date accurately because the Hebrew year starts with Rosh Ha-Shanah (which usually falls in September) whereas the secular year starts on January 1. Another problem has been that of the continuity of many of the publications; some newspapers and periodicals did (or do) not actually appear with the regularity claimed and thus many items are described as "irregular." A large number of newspapers are unavailable and have not been litsted; for others of this kind, which have been listed, no exact statistics have been recorded. Notwithstanding the above factors, however, the list does reflect the scope and nature of the Hebrew press of the last 300 years. Abbreviations used are: <dl> <dd> A. </dd> <dt> \= Annual </dt> <dd> B-M. </dd> <dt> \= Bimonthly </dt> <dd> B-W. </dd> <dt> \= Biweekly </dt> <dd> D. </dd> <dt> \= Daily </dt> <dd> F. </dd> <dt> \= Fortnightly </dt> <dd> Irr. </dd> <dt> \= Irregular </dt> <dd> Jer. </dd> <dt> \= Jerusalem </dt> <dd> Lit. </dd> <dt> \= Literary </dt> <dd> M. </dd> <dt> \= Monthly </dt> <dd> N.S. </dd> <dt> \= New Series </dt> <dd> N.Y. </dd> <dt> \= New York </dt> <dd> Q. </dd> <dt> \= Quarterly </dt> <dd> S-A. </dd> <dt> \= Semiannual </dt> <dd> T.A. </dd> <dt> \= Tel Aviv </dt> <dd> W. </dd> <dt> \= Weekly </dt> </dl> 1901–1940 indicates that the item appeared from 1901 until 1904; 1901, 1904 indicates that the item appeared in each of these two years only. Newspapers, Hebrew Title Freq. Place of Publication Year(s) of Appearance Main Characteristics A.B. F. Ḥolon 1969 the first Samaritan newspaper Adrikhalut Q. 1966 architecture, city planning, engineering, interior design, and construction arts Aḥdut – see also: Ha-Aḥdut Le-Aḥdut ha-Avodah Aḥdut ha-Avodah 1 Jaffa 1919 the first organ of the Aḥdut ha-Avodah party Aḥdut ha-Avodah M. T.A. 1930–1932 lit., Mapai Aḥdut ha-Avodah 1–4 T.A. 1943–1946 collections of issues related to Mapai Aḥi'asaf – see: Lu'ah Aḥi'asaf Akhsanyah 1 T.A. 1955 lit. Akhshav Irr. Jer. 1957 lit. Akrav W. T.A. 1946–1947 humor and satire Al Admat Bessarabyah Irr. T.A. 1959–1963 history of Bessarabian Jewry, 3 vols. Alef 1 Lvov, Galicia 1937 lit. Alef Irr. T.A. 1938 organ of the Ha-Ivrim movement (Canaanities) Aleh M. T.A. 1959 youth organ of the lḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim; continuation of Nivim, 1951–59 Alei Hadas 1–4 Odessa, Russia 1865 lit. Alei Mishmeret Q. T.A. 1958 organ of the National Religious Party Youth Alei Si'aḥ 1–3 T.A. 1966–1967 literary circles of the lḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim Al ha-Ḥomah M. T.A. 1938 organ of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir; appeared under various other titles Al ha-Mishmar W. Jer. 1922–1923 nonpartisan Al ha-Mishmar D. T.A. 1943–2005 originally Mishmar, organ of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir; from 1948 Al ha-Mishmar, Ḥotam organ of Mapam; from 1970 also weekly magazine Al ha-Saf 1 Jer. 1918 the last organ of Po'alei Zion in Ereẓ Israel before it merged with Aḥdut ha-Avodah Al Ḥuk ha-Mikra 1–4 T.A. 1947–1954 biblical research Alil 1–2 N.Y. 1946–1947 lit. Alim 1 Kiev, Ukraine 1912 lit. Alim Irr. Jer. 1939–1956 Youth Aliyah; ceased publication in 1956 and renewed in 1970 Alim Irr. T.A. 1951–1963 theoretical organ of the Ha-No'ar ha-Ẓiyyoni movement.   Newspapers, Hebrew Alim le Bibliografyah u-le-Safranut B-M. T.A. 1947–1948 bibliography and librarianship; first volume published under the names Yad la-Safran and Ha-Safran Alim le Bibliografyah ve-Korot Yisrael Irr. Vienna 1934–1937 bibliography and Jewish history Aliyah Irr. Jer. 1934–1937 published by the Aliyah Department of the Jewish Agency 1969 Almanakh ha-Ishah A. T.A. 1961–1965 women's almanac Almanakh Miẓpeh 1 T.A. 1930 literary almanac of the Miẓpeh Publishing House Alonekh M. T.A. 1950–1963 women's publication Alon ha-Congress Q. T.A. 1967 published by the Israel branch of the World Jewish Congress Alon ha-Dayyagim Q. Haifa 1951–1962 bulletin on fisheries; superseded by Dayig u-Midgeh Alon ha-Ḥevrah ha-Numismatit Q. T.A. 1966 numismatics Alon ha-Note'a M. T.A. 1945 cultivating fruit trees Alon ha-Palmaḥ Irr. T.A. 1942–1950 illegal organ of the Palmaḥ; without a masthead and no mention of an address Alon ha-Shofetim Irr. T.A. 1963 bulletin of soccer referees Alon ha-Shomerim Irr. T.A. 1935–1957 organ of the Association of Guards Alon ha-Tenu'ah ha-Bein-le'ummit Irr. T.A. 1949–1959 bulletin of the international movement of conscientious objectors le-Sarevanei Milḥamah mi-Ta'amei 1963–1964 Maẓpun Alonim (Kibbutz Dati) – see: Ammudim Alon Kibbutzei ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir M. T.A. 1965 economic problems of the settlements organized in Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir Alon Mishkei ha-lḥud Irr. T.A. 1963 economic problems of the settlements organized in lḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim Alon Mishkei ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad Irr. T.A. 1961 economic problems of the settlements organized in ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad Al Penei Kaddur ha-Areẓ 1 T.A. 1943 view of the world during World War II Al Saf ha-Maḥar 1 T.A. 1945 problems of the post-World War II period Alummah 1 Jer. 1936 research in Judaic studies Almmanah 1 Jer. 1939 research in Judaic studies Almmanah A. Jer. 1956–1957 Torah culture Ammot B-M T.A. 1962–1965 lit. and Jewish problems Ammud ha-Yirah Irr. Jer. 1879–1880 ultra-Orthodox organ devoted to propaganda for the settlement of Ereẓ Israel; previously published in Hungary Ammudim W. T.A. 1944–1947 new Aliyah Ammudim Irr. T.A. 1955 organ of Kibbutz Dati Am u-Medinah W. Jer. 1950–1951 general affairs Am va-Sefer Irr. Jer.-T.A. 1936 Hebrew culture in Ereẓ Israel and the Diaspora; published by Brit Ivrit Olamit; continuation of Berit Am Am ve-Admato Q. Jer. 1963 problems of land settlement; organ of the Jewish National Fund; continuation of Karnenu Anakh 1 T.A. 1954 lit. Appiryon M. N.Y. 1923–1927 rabbinics; printed in Hungary Arakhim 1 Warsaw 1919 lit. Arakhim Irr. T.A. 1968–1969 collections for holidays and festivals published by the Religious Department of the Histadrut Arakhim Irr. T.A. 1969 ideological organ of the New Communist Party (Rakah) Areshet 1 Jer. 1944 lit. organ of religious writers Aresheth A. Jer. 1958 bibliography and Hebrew booklore Ari'el W. Jer. 1874–1877 newspaper published by former members of the editorial board of Ḥavaẓẓelet Arkhitekturah – see: Adrikhalut Asefat Ẓakhamim M. Koenigsberg, E. Prussia 1877–1878 the second socialist periodical in Hebrew (after Ha-Emet); officially a supplement to Ha-Kol Aspaklaryah M. N.Y. 1904 lit. Aspaklaryah W. Jer. 1922–1923 lit. and general affairs Aspaklaryah M. T.A. 1938–1947 digest of Hebrew and non-Hebrew newspapers in Ereẓ Israel and abroad Aspaklaryah shel ha-Sport W. T.A. 1946–1948 sports   Newspapers, Hebrew Asuppot Irr. T.A. 1945 history of Ereẓ Israel and Jewish labor movement At M. T.A. 1967 women's magazine Atidenu M. Berlin 1924 culture and education Atidenu M. Buenos Aires 1926–1927 lit. and current affairs Atidot Irr. T.A. 1944–1959 lit. for youth; frequency of publication changed several times Attikot Irr. Jer. 1946 archaeology Avaryanut ve-Ḥevrah A. Jer. 1966 delinquency; first year semiannually Avodah u-Vittu'aḥ Le'ummmi M. Jer. 1949 labor and national insurance Ayin W. T.A. 1951–1952 lit. Ayin be-Ayin W. Jer. 1958–1959 religious illustrated magazine; superseded by Panim el Panim Ba-Avodah 1 Jaffa 1918 first publication edited by Berl Katznelson general affairs Ba-Derekh F. Vienna 1920–1921 general affairs Ba-Derekh W. Warsaw 1935–1937 the last Hebrew newspaper in Poland Ba-Derekh A. Givat Ḥavivah-Merḥavyah 1967 Jewish labor movement in Israel and abroad Ba-Derekh (communist) – see: Zo ha-Derekh Ba-Histadrut M. T.A. 1943–1970 weekly review of all Histadrut activities; called Pinkas li-Fe'ilei ha-Histadrut during first year of publication; ceased publication in 1960 and renewed in 1962; ceased publication in 1970 Ba-Kefar M. T.A. 1947–1952 organ of agricultural workers Ba-Kibbutz W. T.A. 1950 information weekly of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad Ba-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi – see: Ha-Shavu'a ba-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi Ba-Kur F. T.A. 1931 organ of Ha-No'ar ha-Oved; seven issues published 1927–30 Ba-Ma'arakhah W. Jer. 1931–1934 extreme anti-Mandatory publication Ba-Ma'arakhah Irr. Jer. 1948, 1961– problems of Sephardi Jews (see also: Shevet va-Am) Ba-Ma'avar 1–4 Warsaw 1925 published by Hitaḥadut in Poland Bamah B-M. Jer. 1933–1948 theatrical review 1959 Ba-Maḥaneh W. T.A. 1948 published by Israel Defense Forces; formerly published underground in mimeographed form Bamat ha-Ishah Q. T.A. 1960 published by WIZO Ba-Mesillah M. T.A. 1946–1947 published by Mizrachi Ba-Midgeh M. Nir David 1948 fisheries; continuation of Alon li-Megaddelei Dagim Ba-Mifal M. Haifa 1942–1950 industrial Histadrut Ba-Mifneh F. T.A. 1935–1940 published by Left Po'alei Zion; formerly collections published for special occasions under this title Ba-Mishor W. Jer. 1940–1946 lit., religious Ba-Mivḥan M. T.A. 1943 published by Maḥanot ha-Olim, Deror, Tenu'at ha-No'ar ha-Ḥalutzi; appeared irregularly from the 1930s to the 1940s Ba-Nativ M. Jer. 1951–1955 aviation club publication Ba-Nekhar 1 Alexandria, Egypt 1918 published by Palestinian refugees in Egypt during World War I Ba-Rekhev M. T.A. 1955 transportation Bar-Ilan A. Ramat Gan 1963 Judaica and humanities Barkai Irr. Vienna 1886 lit. Barkai W. Odessa, Russia 1919 lit. Barkai F. Johannesburg 1933 lit.; a few first numbers called Ba-Sad Ba-Sa'ar 1 T.A. 1943 lit.; Hebrew writers for Jewish soldiers Ba-Sha'ar F. T.A. 1947–1952 Youth Movement of Mapam Ba-Sha'ar M. & B-M. T.A. 1958 ideological organ of Mapam Ba-Telem Irr. T.A. 1954–1960 published for moshavim of new immigrants Bat Kol D., W. Cracow-Lvov, Galicia 1911–1914 lit., religious Be'ad ve-Neged B-M. Jer. 1963 social and political problems   Newspapers, Hebrew Be'ayot M. Jer. 1944–1949 Jewish-Arab cooperation; continuation of Be'ayot ha-Yom Be'ayot Beinle'ummiyyot Q. T.A. 1963 international affairs, underdeveloped countries Be'ayot ha-Ḥinnukh ha-Meshuttaf Q. T.A. 1937 pedagogical organ of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir Be'ayot ha-Yom Jewish-Arab cooperation, superseded by Be'ayot Be-Ḥakla'ut u-va-Meshek M. T.A. 1960–1995 labor and output Beḥinot 1–11 Jer. 1952–1955 literary criticism Beḥinot Irr. T.A. 1970 studies of Russian and East European Jews Beinetayim 1 Jer. 1913 lit. Bein ha-Meẓarim 1–2 Jer. 1915 organ of Po'alei Zion during World War I Bein ha-Zemannim 1 Safed 1916 organ of Po'alei Zion during World War I Bein ha-Zemannim 1–2 Kharkov, 1918–1919 lit. Ukraine Bein Milḥamah ve-Shalom 1 T.A. 1945 post World War II political problems Beitar M. Jer. 1933–1934 lit.; Revisionist Beit Eked 1 Berdichev, 1892 lit. Ukraine Beit ha-Keneset 1 Jer. 1955 studies of synagogues Beit ha-Midrash M. Vienna 1865 Judaic studies Beit ha-Midrash 1 Cracow, Poland 1888 rabbinics and Judaic studies Beit ha-Midrash he-Ẓadash M. Grajewo, Poland 1928–1931 Judaic studies Beit Mikra Q. Jer. 1956 Bible studies Beit Oẓar ha-Sifrut – see: Oẓar ha-Sifrut Beit Talmud 1–5 Vienna 1881–1889 studies of rabbinic literature Beit Va'ad la-Ḥakhamim M. Grosswardein (Oradea), Transylvania 1875 Judaic studies Beit Va'ad la-Ḥakhamim M. London-Leeds 1902–1904 rabbinics and Judaic studies Beit Va'ad la-Ḥakhamim M. N.Y. 1903 rabbinics Beit Va'ad la-Ḥakhamim Satu Mare (Szatmar), Transylvania 1922–1939 rabbinics Beit Ya'akov M. Jer. 1959 education and lit., religious Beit Yiẓhak A. N.Y. 1952–1961 Beivar Q. T.A. 1959 zoo Be-Maḥaneh Gadna M. T.A. 1949 organ of the *Gadna Be-Maḥaneh Naḥal M. T.A. 1949 organ of the *Naḥal Be-Misholei ha-Ḥinnukh Irr. Kaunas 1936–1940 pedagogy (Kovno), Lithuania Ben Ammi M. St. Petersburg 1887 lit. Bereshit 1 Moscow-Leningrad 1926 lit.; printed in Berlin Beri'ut F. T.A. 1933–1935 health Beri'ut ha-Am Q. Jer. 1926–1927 health Beri'ut ha-Oved Irr. T.A. 1924–1929 workers' health Beri'ut ha-Ẓibbur Q. Jer. 1958 health Be-Sha'ah Zu 1–3 Jaffa 1916 organ of Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir during World War I Be-Sherut ha-Ezaḥ Q. T.A. 1957 Magen David Adom in Israel Be-Sherut ha-Ta'asukah B-M. Ramat Gan 1959 problems of employment Be-Terem M., F., T.A. 1942–1960 semilegal organ of the Haganah; originally called Milḥamtenu Q. and also known by other titles until the establishment of the State of Israel Betiḥut M. T.A. 1957 safety and hygiene at work Be-Ẓok ha-Ittim 1 Safed 1919 lit. Bikkoret ha-Ittim Irr. Leipzig, Germany 1864–1865 the first humor and satire periodical in Hebrew   Newspapers, Hebrew Bikkoret u-Farshanut Irr. Ramat Gan 1970 literary criticism Bikkurei ha-Ittim A. Vienna 1821–1831 lit. and Judaic studies: first few volumes partly in German Bikkurei ha-Ittim 1 Vienna 1844 lit. and Judaic studies Bikkurei ha-Ittim ha-Ḥadashim 1 Vienna 1845 lit. and Judaic studies Bikkurei ha-Shanah A. Amsterdam 1843 Hebrew and Dutch almanac Bikkurei To'elet A. Amsterdam 1820 almanac Bikkurim A. Vienna 1864–1865 lit. Billui Na'im F. Jer. 1969 humor, crossword puzzles, etc. Bimat ha-Ḥovevim Irr. T.A. 1959 amateur theater organ Binyan va-Ḥaroshet M. T.A. 1927–1928 organ of the Engineers' Union; continuation of Yedi'ot Bi-Sedeh Ḥemed T.A. 1957 Pedagogical organ of religious teachers Bi-Sedeh ha-Beniyyah M. Haifa 1953 engineering Bi-Sedeh ha-Tekhnikah Irr. 1941–1946 Technology; name changed from Bi-Shevilei ha-Tekhnikah to Be-arkhei ha-Tekhnikah to Bi-Netivei ha-Tekhnikah Bi-Tefuẓot ha-Golah A. Jer. 1958 World Jewry, published by the Zionist Organization Bittaḥon ve-Higyenah ba-Avodah Q. Jer. 1949–1956 safety and hygiene at work Bitta'on M. Chicago 1934–1938 pedagogy, originally mimeographed Bitte'on Ḥabad Irr. T.A. 1953 published by Ḥabad Ḥasidim Bitte'on Ḥeil ha-Avir – see: Ḥeil ha-Avir Bittu'aḥ Q. T.A. 1967 insurance Bitzaron M. N.Y. 1939–1992 lit. and Judaic studies Bul W. T.A. 1965 gossip and sex Bulim – see also: Ha-Bulai M. T.A. 1957–1963 stamps; superseded by Ha-Yarḥon ha-Yisre'eli le-Vula'ut Bulletin shel ha-Makhon le T.A. 1937–1948 economics Ḥeker ha-Kalkalah Bustanai – see also: Mi-Yamim W. Reḥovot 1929–1939 organ of the Hitaḥadut ha-Ikkarim (Farmers' Association): youth supplement Bustanai la-No'ar, 1934–37 Daf Irr. T.A. 1950 information bulletin of the Hebrew Writers Association Daf ha-Tenu'ah W. T.A. 1960 organ of Ha-No'ar ha-Ẓiyyoni Dagesh F., M. T.A. 1950–1954 digest of the Hebrew press abroad Dappei Aliyah Irr. Jer 1949 aliyah problems Dappim Q. Jer. 1948 Youth Aliyah Dappim M. Johannesburg 1950–1953 lit. Dappim Irr. Jerusalem 1950–1955 pedagogical and special problems 1964 Dappim le-Fiyyut u-le Vikkoret 1 Jer. 1916 poetry and criticism Dappim le-Ḥeker ha-Sho'ah T.A. 1951 Holocaust research by Isaac Katznelson House, N.S. 1970 Dappim le-Limmud Ta'amei ha-Mikra Irr. T.A. 1959 biblical accents Dappim li-Tezunah M. Jer. 1950 nutrition; formerly Yarḥon ha-Tezunah Dappim li-Ydi'ot ha-Sefer ve-ha-Safranut Irr. Jer. 1942–1943 booklore and librarianship Dappim Refu'iyyim B-M. T.A. 1935 medical organ of Kuppat Ḥolim Darkenu 1 Odessa, Russia 1917 Hebrew culture and education Darkhei ha-Kalkalah B-M. T.A. 1939–1940 economics Darkhei ha-No'ar 1 Jer. 1938 problems of youth in the Zionist framework Darom M. Buenos Aires 1938 lit.; see also Zohar Dat u-Medinah 1 T.A. 1949 published by religious members of the Histradut Davar D. T.A. 1925–1994 Histradrut daily; the first daily newspaper of Jewish workers in Ereẓ Israel Davar la-Golah W. T.A. 1939–1940 Davar aimed at a readership abroad Dayig u-Midgeh Q. Haifa 1963 fisheries Degel ha-rabbanim Irr. Lodz, Poland 1926–1929 rabbinics Degel ha-Torah M. Warsaw 1921–1922 rabbinics De'ot Irr. Jer. 1957 published for religious students Derekh – see also: Ha-Derekh Derekh ha-Po'el M. T.A. 1934–1946 Left Po'alei Zion   Newspapers, Hebrew Devarenu M. Vienna 1930–1931 lit. Devar ha-Moreh Irr. Warsaw 1930–1939 pedagogy Devar ha-Moreh Irr. N.Y. 1945 pedagogy Devar ha-Po'elet M. T.A. 1934 women's magazine of the Histadrut Devar ha-Shavu'a W. T.A. 1946 illustrated magazine; became the weekly supplement of Davar Devar ha-Shilton ha-Mekomi–see: Ha-Shilton ha-Mekomi Devir Q. Berlin 1923 Judaic studies Diglenu M. Warsaw 1920–1930 Ẓe'irei Agudat Israel Diglenu M. T.A. 1939 Ẓe'irei Agudat Israel in Ereẓ Israel; irregular Dinei Yisrael A. Jer. 1970 Jewish law and family law in Israel; partly in English Divrei ha-Akademyah le-Madda'im A. Jer. 1966 transactions of the Academy Divrei ha-Keneset Jer. 1949 deliberations of the Knesset; preceded by deliberations of the Provisional State Council, 1948–49 Divrei Ḥakhamim 1 Metz, Lorraine 1849 collection of edited Hebrew manuscripts from the Middle Ages Divrei ha-Yamim 1–4 Jer. 1950–1955 ancient and medieval history of the Jews in the form of a modern newspaper Divrei Soferim 1 T.A. 1944 lit. Diyyunim Irr. Ẓofit (Bet Berl) 1970 discussions of current problems Do'ar – see also: Ha-Do'ar Q. Jer. 1952 published by the Ministry of Posts Do'ar ha-Yom D. Jer. 1919–1936 newspaper published by native-born Palestinian Jews and supported by farming circles and older settlers; for some time edited by V. Jabotinsky and supported by the Revisionist movement Dorenu M. Chicago 1934–1935 lit. Dorot F. T.A. 1949–1950 lit. Dukhan A. Jer. 1960–1966 music and religion Edot Q. Jer. 1945–1948 folklore and ethnology Edut le-Yisrael Q. N.Y.-Lvov 1888–1898 missionary newspaper Egel ha-Zahav W. T.A. 1939 humor and satire Egoz A. Jer. 1968–1969 lit. Ein ha-Kore Q. Berlin 1923 lit. and bibliography Ein ha-Moreh Irr. Sedeh Boker 1969 pedagogy Ein ha-Sefer Irr. T.A. 1945–1947 bibliography Eitanim – see also: Ha-Eitanim M. T.A. 1948 health and hygiene; for a number of years included a youth supplement, Eitanim li-Yladeinu Eked Q. T.A. 1960 poetry Emunim 1 Jer. 1955 collections of poems by religious poets Ereẓ 1 Odessa, Russia 1919 lit. Ereẓ Yisrael Jer. 1923 the first morning daily in Ereẓ Israel Eretz Yisrael A. Jer. 1951–1969 archaeology and history of the yishuv; each volume is dedicated to a scholar Eshkolot Irr. Kishinev, Moldavia 1927–1929 lit. Eshkolot A. Jer. 1954 the classical world Eshnav Irr. T.A. 1941–1947 illegal organ of the Haganah; 157 issues printed Etgar Irr. T.A. 1960–1967 organ of the "Semitic movement" Foto-Roman M. T.A. 1970 picture stories Gadish 1 T.A. 1930 lit. Gallim F. Vilna 1929–1930 lit. Gammad M. T.A. 1957 humor Gan ha-Yerek M. Jaffa 1917–1918 vegetable growing; published Berl Katzenelson's articles on vegetables   Newspapers, Hebrew Gannenu Irr. Jer. 1919–1925 kindergarten Gan Perahim 1–3 Vilna 1882–1893 lit. Gan va-Nof M. T.A. 1945 gardening and planting Gazit M. T.A. 1932 lit. and art; first published in Jerusalem Genazim – see also: Yedi'ot Genazim A. T.A. 1961 collection of documents of modern Hebrew literature Ge'on ha-Areẓ A. Warsaw 1893–1894 lit. Gerizim F. Ḥolon 1970 the second Samaritan newspaper Gesher Q. Jer. 1954 problems of Jews and Judaism Gevillin Q. T.A. 1957 published by the National Religious Party Gevulot Irr. Vienna 1918–1920 lit. Gilyonenu Irr. N.Y. 1946–1954 religious education of American Mizrachi Gilyonot M. T.A. 1933–1954 lit. Ginzei Kedem Irr. Jer. 1922–1944 collections of research on the geonic period Ginzei Nistarot Irr. Bamberg, 1868–1878 Judaic studies Germany Ginzei Schechter Irr. N.Y. 1928–1929 genizah studies Gittit M. T.A. 1964 music Gordonyah Irr. Warsaw 1926–1933 published by World Center of the Gordonia movement Goren Kiddon M. T.A. 1948–1951 sports: published by Hapoel Ha-Adamah M. T.A. 1920, 1923 lit.; final issues appeared after its editor, J.H. Brenner, was killed Ha-Aḥdut – see also: Aḥdut W. Jer. 1910–1915 first Hebrew organ of Po'alei Zion in Ereẓ Israel; a monthly in 1910 Ha-Aḥot be-Yisrael Q. T.A. 1948 nursing; copies of Ha-Ahot came out in Jerusalem during the 1930s and 1940s Ha-Am W. Moscow 1916–1918 lit. Ha-Am D. Moscow 1917–1918 the last Hebrew daily in Russia; closed by the Bolsheviks Ha-Am W. N.Y. 1916 lit. Ha-Am Jer. 1931 Revisionist; superseded by Ḥazit ha-Am Haaretz Jer.-T.A. 1919 until Dec. 2, 1919 called Ḥadshot ha-Areẓ; in Jerusalem until 1923 and from then in Tel Aviv; many supplements for youth and others; weekly magazine supplement issued since the beginning of 1963 Ha-Areẓ Irr. Jer. 1891 lit. Ha-Areẓ ve-ha-Avodah Q. Jaffa 1918–1919 organ of Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir Ha-Ari'el – see: Ari'el Ha-Asif A. London-Leipzig 1847, 1849 Judaic studies Ha-Asif A. Warsaw 1884–1893 lit. Ha-Be'er Q. Zamosc, Poland 1923–1938 rabbinics Ha-Bimah ha-Ivrit M. Buenos Aires 1921–1928 lit. Ha-Binyan Irr. T.A. 1934–1938 architecture; known under other names Ha-Boker D. Warsaw 1909 Ha-Boker D. T.A. 1935–1965 General Zionists , Liberals; many supplements Ha-Boker Or M. Lvov-Warsaw 1876–1886 lit. Ha-Boneh ha-Ḥofshi B-M. T.A. 1933 freemasonry; began as a quarterly for a number of years Ha-Bulai ha-Ivri Irr. T.A. 1950–1957 stamps; during the last year of publication known as Ha-Bulai Ḥadashot W. &D. T.A. 1937–1940 general affairs Ḥadashot Aḥaronot D. Jer. 1936–1937 general affairs Ḥadashot Arkheologiyyot Q. Jer. 1962 archaeology Ḥadashot me-ha-Areẓ ha-Kedoshah W. Jer.-Cairo 1918–1919 newspaper of the British occupation authorities; the first newspaper to appear in Palestine after the British conquest; its continuation was Ḥadashot ha-Areẓ the first incarnation of Haaretz Ha-Dayig ha-Yisre'eli M. T.A. 1950–1961 fisheries Ha-Degel – see: Ha-Yehudi Ha-Derekh M. Frankfurt 1913–1914 central organ of Agudat Israel Zurich-Vienna 1919–1924   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Derekh Irr. Warsaw 1928 World Union of Jewish Youth Ha-Derekh W. T.A. 1942–1947 Agudat Israel Ha-Derekh Irr. T.A. 1951–1965 theoretical organ of the Israel Communist Party; superseded by Zu ha-Derekh of the New Communist List (Rakaḥ) Ha-Deror W. N.Y. 1911 lit. Ha-Devir M. Jer. 1919–1923 Judaic studies and rabbinics Ha-Devorah M. N.Y 1911–1912 lit. and satire Hadoar D. N.Y. 1921–1923 255 issues Hadoar W. N.Y. 1923 lit. Ha-Dor W. Cracow Poland 1901, 1904 lit. Ha-Dor D. T.A. 1948–1955 Mapai afternoon paper Hadorom S-A. N.Y. 1957 rabbinics and Judaic studies Ḥadshot ha-Erev D. T.A. 1946–1947 afternoon paper of Mapai Ḥadshot ha-Kalkalah ha-Ereẓ Yisre'elit M. Jer. 1945–1948 economics Ḥadshot ha-Neft M. T.A. 1965 published by the Israel Oil Institute Ḥadshot ha-Sport D. T.A. 1954 sports Ḥadshot ha-Tahburah F. Ramat Gan 1970 air, land, and sea transportation Ḥadshot ha-Yom D. Jer. 1943 a government newspaper in Hebrew that was published when all Hebrew newspapers were confiscated on the eve of the siege and search of Ramat ha-Kovesh by the British; eight issues published in November 1943 Ḥadshot N.C.R. Q. T.A. 1964 N.C.R. news Ḥadshot Pensyah u-Vittu'ah Sozyali M. T.A. 1968 pension and social security Ḥadshot Sport ve-Toto W. T.A. 1970 sports and Toto (football pools) Ha-Edah Q. Jer. 1966 ultra-Orthodox community in Jerusalem Ha-Eitanim M. Drohobycz, Galicia 1897–1898 the first pedagogical periodical in Hebrew; only three issues published Ha-Emet M. Vienna 1877 the first Socialist periodical in Hebrew; only three issues published; two reprints Ha-Em ve-ha-Yeled A. T.A. 1934–1936 child care; also under the names Sefer ha-Shanah ha-Em ve-ha-Yeled or Lu'aḥ ha-Em-ve-ha-Yeled Ha-Esh M. T.A. 1955–1962 published by the Fire Department; isolated pamphlets under this title came out in 1930 and 1940 Ha-Eshkol A. Cracow, Poland 1898–1913 Judaic studies (1–7) Ha-Ezraḥ M. Jaffa 1919 lit. Ha-Galgal F. &W. Jer. 1943–1948 lit. and radio; continuation of Radio Yerushalayim; official paper of the Mandatory government Ha-Galill 1 Tiberias-Safed 1919 lit. Ha-Gan 1 St. Petersburg 1899 lit. Ha-Gat 1 St. Petersburg 1897 lit. Ha-Gedud Irr. T.A. 1923–1929 published by the "Defenders of the Hebrew language" Ha-Gesher Q. Chicago 1939–1940 pedagogy Ha-Ginnah Irr. Odessa-Jer. 1917–1925 nursery school problems Ha-Goren A. Berdichev-Berlin 1897–1928 Judaic studies Ha-Goren 1 St. Petersburg 1898 lit. Ha-Ḥarsa – see: Ha-Shemesh Ha-Ḥayyal ha-Ivri F. &D. 1941–1946 originally mimeographed in the North African desert and later in various places in Europe; a daily under the name La-Ḥayyal, 1944–1946 Ha-Ḥayyal ha-Meshuḥrar Irr. T.A. 1946 began to appear as Ha-Ḥayyal ha-Ivri, the newspaper of the demobilized soldiers, and later under other names until it became the organ of disabled veterans of Israel wars; currently Ha-Loḥem Ha-Ḥayyim W. Vilna 1920 lit. Ha-Ḥayyim W. Jer. 1922 illus. lit.; one of the first illustrated weeklies Ha-Ḥayyim Hallalu W. T.A. 1935 illus. Ha-Ḥazit Irr. T.A. 1943–1948 organ of Lehi; mostly mimeographed organ Ha-Ḥazit M. T.A. 1966 organ of the extreme nationalists (formerly Leḥi) and after the Six-Day War supporting the territorial integrity of Ereẓ Israel   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Hed M. Jer. 1926–1952 lit., religious; unofficial organ of the Department of Religion of the JNF Ha-Ḥerut – see also: Herut F. &D. Jer. 1909–1917 a daily from 1912; the only newspaper to appear in Jerusalem during World War 1 Ha-Ḥerut D. Jer. 1932 Sephardi organ Ha-Ḥevrah Irr. T.A. 1940–1946 pro-Revisionist Ha-Ḥevrah Irr. T.A. 1959–1964 pro-Mapai academicians; now under the name Adademot 1969 Ha-Ḥinnukh M., B-M.Q. Jer. T.A. 1910 the oldest pedagogical periodical still appearing Q. Ha-Ḥinnukh ha-Gufani B-M. T.A. Netanyah 1944 originally published by the Va'ad Le'ummi and now published by the Wingate Institute; publication periodically interrupted Ha-Ḥinnukh ha-Ivri Q. N.Y. 1938–1939 pedagogy Ha-Ḥinnukh ha-Meshuttaf – see: Be'ayot ha-Hinnukh Ha-Ḥinnukh ha-Musikali Irr. Jer. 1950 music education Ha-Ḥoker Irr. Cracow-Vienna 1891–1893 Judaic studies Ha-Ḥomah Irr. Jer. 1944 published by the Neturei Karta under various names, including Ḥomatenu, Mishmeret Ha-Ḥomah, etc. Ha-Ḥozeh W. Berlin-Hamburg 1881–1882 lit. Ha-Ikkar Irr. Jer. 1893–1895 first agricultural periodical in Hebrew – first two issues are partly in Yiddish Ha-Ishah M. Jer. 1926–1929 women's magazine Ha-Ishah ba-Medinah M. T.A. 1949–1953 women's magazine Ha-Ishah be-Yisrael Irr. T.A. 1948–1949 WIZO organ; first issued entitled WIZO bi-Medinat Yisrael Ha-Itton ha-Demokrati Irr. T.A. 1945 the "Third (Trotskyite) Force Movement" Ha-Itton ha-Rasmi F. Jer. 1921–1948 official gazette of the British in Palestine; also in Arabic and English Ha-Itton ha-Yehudi Irr. Jer.-T.A. 1963 organ of the World Union of Jewish Journalists; partly in Yiddish, three in English; first 17 issues entitled Korot Haivri – see also: Ivri W. N.Y. 1892–1898 lit.; with short interruptions 1901–1902 Ha-Ivri W. Berlin-N.Y. 1910–1921 Mizrachi; from 1916 in New York Ha-Ivri Irr. T.A. 1935–1936 vocalized, for new immigrants Ha-Ivri he-Ḥadash 1 Warsaw 1912 lit. Ha-Kabbai ha-Mitnaddev B-M. T.A. 1938–1945 volunteer firemen Ha-Kabbelan ve-ha-Boneh M. T.A. 1952 Building Contractors' Association Ha-Kalban M. Jer. 1944–1947 dog owners and trainers Ha-Kalkalah ha-Ereẓ Yisre'elit M. T.A. 1935–1938 economy of Palestine Ha-Karmel W. &M. Vilna 1860–1879 the first Hebrew weekly of Lithuanian Jews; a weekly until the beginning of 1871 Ha-Karmel D. Haifa 1938 afternoon daily Ha-Kaspan M. Jer. 1932–1934 financial and economic affairs Ha-Kedem Q. St. Petersburg 1907–1909 Judaic studies Ha-Kenes ha-Madda'i ha-Meyuḥad Irr. Jer. 1956 published by the Association for the Advancement of Science in Israel Ha-Kerem 1 Warsaw 1887 Judaic studies, lit. Ha-Kerem 1 Vilna 1906 lit. Ha-Kerem 1 Berdichev, Ukraine 1897 lit. Ha-Kerem B-M. Boston, Mass. 1915 pedagogy Ha-Keshet – see also: Keshet M. Berlin 1903 lit. and art; the first art periodical in Hebrew Ha-Khimai be-Yisrael Irr. Haifa 1968 organ of the Israel Chemistry Society Ha-Kinnus ha-Arẓi le-Torah she-be-Al Peh A. Jer. 1959 halakhic transactions Ha-Kinnus ha-Olami le-Madda'ei ha- Irr. Jer. 1952, papers of the First and Fourth World Congress of Jewish studies; Yahadut 1967–1968 partly in other languages   Newspapers, Hebrew Ḥakla'ut be-Yisrael T.A. 1956 agriculture Ha-Kokhavim 1 Vilna 1865 lit. Ha-Kokhavim be-Ḥodsham M. Jer. 1954 astronomy Ha-Kol – see also: Kol F. &W. Koenigsberg, E. Prussia 1876–1880 the second Hebrew Socialist newspaper, Asefat Ḥakhamim, was published under the auspices of this paper Ha-Kol W. & F. N.Y. 1889 a continuation of the previous entry Ha-Kol W. Warsaw 1907 ultra-Orthodox Ha-Kol D. Jer. 1949–1967 Po'alei Agudat Israel Ha-Le'om M. &W. N.Y. 1901–1908 during the first years partly in Yiddish Ha-Le'ummi W. N.Y. 1888–1889 lit. Ha-Levanon M., F. & W. Jer., Paris-Mainz-London 1863–1886 the first newspaper published in Jerusalem (1863–64); afterward in Europe with interruptions Halikhot – see also: Shanah be-Shanah Q. T.A. 1958 religious publication Hallel M. Jer. 1930 music and song Ha-Loḥem – see: Ha-Ḥayyal ha-Meshuḥar Ha-Ma'arav F. & W. T.A. 1950–1952 Ha-Ma'as Irr. T.A. 1944–1950 organ of Leḥi during the British Mandate Ha-Mabbit W. Vienna 1878 lit.; some issues under the title Ha-Mabbit le-Yisrael Ha-Madda ve-ha-Tekhnikah – Ha-Tekhnai ha-Ẓa'ir – see: Ha-Tekhnai ha-Ẓa'ir Ha-Maggid W. Lyck-Berlin-Cracow 1856–1903 the first modern newspaper in Hebrew; from the 1890s the name varies: Ha-Maggid he-Ḥadash, Ha-Maggid le-Yisrael, Ha-Shavu'a Ha-Maḥar Irr. T.A. 1927–1931 a nonconformist publication by A. Hameiri 1940 Ha-Makkabbi Q. Odessa, Russia 1918 Maccabi Russia Ha-Makkabbi Irr. Jer.-Jaffa-T.A. 1913–1938 various pamphlets and organs by this name were published irregularly by the Maccabi Organization Ḥammamot u-Feraḥim Irr. T.A. 1968 flower growing Ḥamishah ha-Kunteresim 1 Vienna 1864 collection of edited ancient manuscripts Ha-Ma'or M. N.Y. 1946 rabbinics Ha-Mashkif D. T.A. 1938–1948 Revisionist organ; superseded by Herut Ha-Matos M. T.A. 1954 aviation Ha-Mattarah W. T.A. 1933 published by the Grossman faction, which split from the Revisionist movement in the same year Ha-Ma'yan M. &Q. Jer. 1952 halakhic and Judaic studies Ha-Mazkir Irr. Lvov, Galicia 1881–1886 Hebrew supplement to the Polish-Jewish Assimilations paper Ojczyzna Ha-Me'ammer Irr. Jer. 1905–1920 collections of Palestinography Ha-Me'assef – see also: Me'assef Irr. Koenigsberg-Berlin-Breslau-Altona-Dessau 1783–1811 inaugurated the Haskalah period of modern Jewish literature Ha-Me'assef 1 Breslau, Germany 1829 lit.; partly in German Ha-Me'assef 1 Vienna 1862 new edition of the first volume of Ha-Me'assef with many additions Ha-Me'assef 1 Koenigsberg, Prussia 1879 lit. supplement to Ha-Kol Ha-Me'assef M. Jer. 1896–1915 rabbinics Ha-Me'assef ba-Areẓ ha-Ḥadashah 1 N.Y. 1881 organ of the first Society of Lovers of Hebrew in the United States Ha-Me'assef li-Shenat ha-Sheloshim 1 Warsaw 1903 in honor of the 30th anniversary of Ha-Ẓefirah shel ha-Ẓefirah Ha-Medinah D. T.A. 1948 a political newspaper   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Me'ir M. Jaffa 1912 Palestinography Ha-Melakhah Irr. Jer. 1943–1950 published for craftsmen 1958 Ha-Meliẓ W. &B-W. Odessa-St. Petersburg 1860–1903 St. Petersburg from 1871; a daily from 1886 Ha-Melonai Q. T.A. 1967 published by the Hotel Association in Israel Ha-Melona'ut Irr. T.A. 1949 published by the Union of Hotel Employees in Israel Ha-Me'orer M. London 1906–1907 lit. Ha-Me'orer Irr. T.A. 1953–1958 organ for Sephardim and members of Oriental communities Ha-Meshek ha-Ḥakla'i M. T.A. 1940 continuation of Ha-Ḥakla'i ha-Ẓa'ir; early volumes entitled Ha-Meshek ha-Ẓa'ir, first volume in German Ha-Meshek ha-Shittufi F. T.A. 1932 cooperative economics; ceased publication in 1948 and reissued in 1953 Ha-Meshek ha-Ẓa'ir – see: Ha-Meshek ha-Ḥakla'i Ha-Messilah M. N.Y. 1936–1943 rabbinics; partly in Yiddish Ha-Messilah Irr. Jer. 1956–1964 organ of yeshivah students and immigrants from Yemen Ha-Mevakker ha-Penimi Q. T.A.-Jer. 1963 published by the Association of Internal Auditors Ha-Mevasser W. Lvov, Galicia 1861–1866 the first Hebrew newspaper in Galicia; its literary supplement was called Ha-Nesher Ha-Mevasser W. Constantinople 1910–1911 a Zionist paper published after the revolution of the Young Turks Ha-Mevasser D. &W. Jer. 1948–1952 Agudat Israel; originally an afternoon daily, later a weekly Ha-Mevatte'aḥ ha-Yisre'eli Irr. T.A. 1941–1960 insurance; two issues appeared in 1932 under the title Ha-Mevatte'aḥ Ha-Mifal M. T.A. 1953 output and export Ha-Minhal Q. T.A. 1950–1959 management Hamisderonah M. Jer. 1886–1887 rabbinics and Judaic studies; the first issues were printed in Frankfurt Ha-Misḥar W., T.A.-Jaffa 1933–1940 trade F. & M. 1945–1956 Ha-Misḥar ba-Ammim u-ve-Yisrael 1 T.A. 1941 trade Ha-Mishpat – see also: Mishpat M. Jer.-T.A. 1927–1934 law Ha-Mishpat ha-Ivri 1 Odessa, Russia 1918 Jewish law Ha-Mishpat ha-Ivri A. T.A. 1926–1939 Jewish law Ha-Miẓpeh M. St. Petersburg 1886 lit. Ha-Miẓpeh W. Cracow, Poland 1904–1914 S.Y. Agnon published his first literary endeavors in this paper 1917–1921 Ha-Miẓpeh M. N.Y. 1910–1911 rabbinics and Judaic studies Ha-Miẓpeh Irr. Warsaw 1926–1936 publication of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir in Poland Ha-Miẓpeh Irr. T.A. 1945–1949 publication of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir in Israel Ha-Miẓpeh S-A. Jer. 1961–1968 organ of the National Religious Party Ha-Mizraḥ M. Cracow, Poland 1903 first organ of Mizrachi Ha-Mizraḥ W. T.A. 1938 affairs of the Yemenite community Ha-Mizraḥ he-Ḥadash Q. Jer. 1949 published by the Israel Oriental Society Ha-Mizraḥi W. Warsaw 1919–1922 organ of Mizrachi in Poland Ha-Modi'a W. Poltava, Ukraine 1910–1914 ultra-Orthodox Ha-Modi'a D. Jer. 1950 Agudat Israel; supplement for children, 1952–59 Ha-Modi'a le-Ḥodahsim M. N.Y. 1900–1901 lit. Ha-Moreh M. N.Y. 1894 lit. Ha-Moreh 1 N.Y. 1924 pedagogy Ha-Moriyyah – see also: Moriyyah F. Jer. 1892 Informative material from Ereẓ Israel Ha-Musakh M. T.A. 1954 automobile repairs Handasah ve-Adrikhalut B-M. T.A. 1931 engineering; in the first year appeared irregularly under various names Ha-Ne'eman Irr. T.A. 1945 organ of yeshivah students   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Nesher M. Pressburg (Bratislava), Czechoslova-kia 1933–1940 rabbinics; for Ha-Nesher of Lvov, see Ha-Mevasser Ha-Nir 1 Jer. 1909 lit. religious Ha-No'ar ha-Musikali M. T.A. 1957–1961 music education Ha-No'ar ve-ha-Areẓ B-M. T.A. 1926–1927 for older youth Ha-Noked Irr. Merḥ avyah Haifa 1940 published by the Association of Shepherds Ha-Of M. T.A. 1939 poultry raising; superseded by Ha-Meshek ha-Ẓa'ir and Ha-Meshek ha-Ḥakla'i Ha-Ofek Irr. Jer. 1952–1959 published by the "Le-Ma'an ha-Tenu'ah el ha-Makor" faction of Ha-Po'el ha-Mizraḥi Ha-Ohel Q. Jer. 1955 rabbinics Ha-Ohelah Irr. Jer. 1925–1926 Ha-Po'el ha-Mizraḥi Haolam – see also: Olam W. Cologne- 1907–1914 organ of the World Zionist Organization Vilna-Odessa-London-Berlin-Berlin 1919–1950 Ha-Olam ha-Zeh W. Jer.-T.A 1937 organ of Ha-Olam ha-Zeh–Ko'aḥ Ḥadash; founded as Tesha ba-Erev; name changed to Ha-Olam ha-Zeh in 1947; came under new direction in 1950; first Hebrew magazine to introduce sex Ha-Omer Irr. 1907–1908 lit.; S.Y. Agnon's works first appeared here under the name Agnon Ha-Or M. Lvov, Galicia 1882–1883 lit. Ha-Or – see: Ha-Ẓevi Ha-Or W. & F. T.A. 1925 Communist (Trotskyite) 1930–-1939 Ha-Or M. Jer. 1956–1958 organ of the Karaite community; mimeographed Ha-Oved Irr. Warsaw 1921–1922 organ of the Ẓ.S. in Poland Ha-Oved ha-Dati Irr. T.A. 1947–1967 Ha-Oved ha-Dati of the Histadrut Ha-Oved ha-Le'ummi M. T.A. 1943–1959 central organ of the Histadrut ha-Ovedim ha-Le'ummit Ha-Oved ha-Ẓiyyoni M. T.A. 1936–1955 organ of Ha-Oved ha-Ẓiyyoni Ha-Pardes M. Several places in Poland & in the U.S. 1913 rabbinics Ha-Pardes – see also: Pardes W. & B-W. Jer. 1909 general affairs Ha-Pedogog M. Cracow, Poland 1903–1904 the first modern educational periodical Ha-Peles M. Poltava-Berlin 1900–1904 ultra-Orthodox, anti-Zionist Ha-Peraḥ W. Calcutta, India 1878–1889 in Hebrew and Arabic Ha-Peraklit Q. T.A. 1943 published by Israel Bar Association Ha-Pisgah W. N.Y.-Baltimore-Boston-St. Louis-Chicago 1888–1900 with interruptions; from the sixth volume known as Ha-Teḥiyyah; Saul Tchernichowsky's first poem was published therein in 1892 Ha-Pisgah A. Vilna 1895–1902 rabbinics; 9 vols.: in the second volume were printed articles by Rabbi Y.L. Fishman-Maimon Ha-Po'el ha-Mizrachi M. Jer. 1923–1926 organ of Ha-Po'el ha-Mizraḥi Ha-Po'el ha-Vatik Irr. T.A. 1938 organ of the older workers organized in the Histadrut; changes in title; from 1959 Shelabbim Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir F. & W. Jaffa-T.A. 1907–1970 organ of Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir, Mapai, and Ha-Avodah; mimeographed two issues in 1907; from 1912 W.; publication interrupted from 1916 to 1918 Ha-Posek M. T.A. 1940–1953 rabbinics Ha-Problemai M. Kabri-Givat Brenner 1954–1969 chess; originally Problemai Ha-Rashut ha-Mekomit M. T.A. 1954–1969 municipality problems Harefuah – see also: Refuah Irr.-F. Jer.-T.A. 1920 newsletter of the Medical Association, 1921–22; known as Harefuah from 1924   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Ro'eh Irr. Lvov-Ofen (Budapest) 1837, 1839 pungent criticism Ha-Rofe ba-Histadrut Irr. T.A. 1953–1956 problems of the physician in the Histadrut Ha-Rofe ba-Mosad Irr. T.A. 1946–1968 organ of the Kuppat Ḥolim physician Harofe Haivri Irr., S-A. N.Y. 1928–1965 medicine and the history of Jewish medicine, special editions for Ereẓ Israel; irregularly from 1928 to 1933; twice annually from 1937; published partly in English Ha-Roke'aḥ ha-Ivri Irr., B-M. T.A. 1940 published by the Pharmaceutical Association; called Ha-Roke'aḥ, 1940–1946 Ḥaroshet u-Melakhah M. T.A. 1965 innovations in production in Israel industry and crafts Ha-Sedeh M. T.A. 1920 agriculture; the only publication of its kind to reach its 50th anniversary (1970) Ha-Sedeh la-No'ar B-M. T.A. 1948–1958 agriculture publication for youth; superseded by Teva va-Areẓ Ha-Sedeh le Gan va-Nof – see: Gan va-Nof Ha-Safah Irr. St. Petersburg 1912 Hebrew language studies Ha-Safran – see: Alim le-Bibliografyah u-le-Safranut Ha-Sanegor Irr. N.Y. 1890 lit. Ha-Sefer Irr. Jer. 1954–1961 bibliography; superseded by Kunteres ha-sefer ha-Torani Ha-Sefer b-Yisrael M. T.A. 1959 organ of publishers in Israel; continuation of Olam ha-Sefer Ha-Sefer ha-Ivri – see: Jewish Book Annual Ha-Segullah Irr. Jer. 1934–1940 editions of manuscripts Ha-Sha'ar D. T.A. 1964 management and the stock market Ha-Shaḥar M. Vienna 1868–1884 lit; the leading periodical of this period Ha-Shaḥmat – see: Shaḥmat Ha-Sharon 1 Cracow, Poland 1893 lit. Ha-Sharon F. Lvov, Galicia 1895 lit. Ha-Shavu'a – see: Ha-Maggid Ha-Shavu'a ba-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi W. Merḥ avyah-T.A. 1950 appeared from 1930 as under various titles organ of the kibbutzim of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir Ha-Shavu'a la-Mishpaḥah W. T.A. 1932 entertainment Ha-Shemesh W. T.A. 1878–1892 lit. Sighet, Transylvania–Kolomea, Galicia Ha-Shilo'aḥ M. Cracow-Warsaw-Odessa-Jer. 1896–1926 lit.; the leading literary journal in Russia until World War I Ha-Shilton ha-Mekomi be-Yisrael M. & B-M. T.A. 1950 municipal problems Hashkafah – see: Ha-Ẓevi Ha-Shofar Irr. Haifa 1914, 1923 Jewish-Arab problems; originally as supplement to an Arab newspaper Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir F. Warsaw 1927–1931 organ of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir F. T.A. 1931–1943 organ of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi from 1934; superseded by Mishmar Ha-Sifrut Q. T.A. 1968 science of literature Ha-Soker Budapest Judaic studies Ha-Solel M. Lvov, Galicia 1933–1934 lit. Ha-Sport – see also: Sport Irr. T.A. 1932, 1940–1941 sport Ha-Sport ha-Le'ummi W. T.A. 1949–1950 sport; Betar Ha-Ta'asiyyah – see also: Ta'asiyyah M. T.A. 1937–1938, published by the Manufacturers' Association 1941 Ha-Tarbut ha-Yisre'elit 1 Jaffa 1913 lit. Ha-Tashbeẓ – see: Tashbeẓ   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Teḥiyyah – see: Ha-Pisgah Ha-Teḥiyyah Irr. Berlin 1850, 1857 Judaic studies Ha-Tekhnai be-Yisrael Q. T.A. 1963–1967 published by the Technicians' Organization Ha-Tekhnai ha-Ẓa'ir M. Kiryat Shemonah 1945 technical problems for youth; later changed name to Ha-Madda ve-ha-Tekhnikah Ha-Tekhnion A. Haifa 1966 organ of the Technion, Haifa Ha-Tekufah Q. & A. Moscow-Warsaw-Berlin 1918–1950 lit. T.A.–N.Y. Ha-Tenu'ah le-Aḥdut ha-Avodah – see: Le-Aḥdut ha-Avodah Ha-Tenu'ah le-Yahadut shel Torah A. Jer. 1966, 1968 published by the Yahadut and Torah movement Ha-Te'ufah Irr., M. T.A. 1947–1956 aeronautics Ha-Teva ve-ha-Areẓ M. T.A. 1932–1940 natural sciences, nature and geography of Israel 1947–1954 1959 Ha-Tikvah W. N.Y. 1901 lit.; the first publication in the United States to introduce a vocalized supplement for children Ha-Tor M. Sighet, 1874–1876 lit. Transylvania-Kolomea, Galicia-Cracow, Poland 1880–1882 Ha-Tor W. Jer. 1920–1935 organ of Mizrachi in Ereẓ Israel Ha-Torah ve-ha-Medinah A. T.A. 1949–1960 religion in Israel Ha-Toren M.W. N.Y. 1913–1926 lit.; weekly, 1916–19 Ha-Ummah W. N.Y. 1915 lit.; merged in 1916 with Ha-Toren ha-Shevu'I Ha-Ummah Q. Jer. 1962 lit. Ḥavaẓẓelet W. Jer. 1863–1864 the second newspaper in Ereẓ Israel 1870–1911 Ha-Ya'ar Irr. Jer.-Netanyah 1947–1955 problems of afforestation Ha-Yahadut F. Lvov, Galicia 1885 lit. Ha-Yahalom Irr. T.A. 1943–1944 professional and managerial problems in the diamond industry 1947 Ha-Yahalom Irr. T.A. 1967 problems in the diamond industry Ha-Yam Irr. M. T.A. 1938–1963 seamanship Ha-Yamai ha-Yisre'eli M. Haifa 1951 published by the National Union of Seamen Ha-Yarden Irr. Stanislavaov, Galicia 1906 lit. Ha-Yarden M. Zurich-N.Y. 1919–1925 lit. Ha-Yarden D. &W. Jer.-T.A. 1934–1941 Revisionist publication Ha-Yare'aḥ Irr. Koenigsberg, Prussia 1871–1872 lit. Ha-Yare'aḥ 1 Jer. 1896 lit. Ha-Yarhon – see also: Yarḥon ha-Yisre'eli le Vula'ut M. T.A. 1966 stamps; continuation of Bulim Ha-Yehudi W. Pressburg (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia 1875–1878 lit.; the first Hebrew newspaper in Hungary Ha-Yehudi W. London 1897–1913 lit.; the only Hebrew newspaper in England that enjoyed a long career Ha-Yehudi M. N.Y. 1936–1938 lit.; religious Ha-Yehudi ha-Niẓḥi Irr. Lvov, Galicia 1866 Judaic studies Ha-Yekev 1 St. Petersburg 1894 lit. Ha-Yesod W. T.A. 1932–1948 religious apolitical   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Yishuv W. T.A. 1924–1927 lit. and general affairs Ha-Yisre'eli W. N.Y. 1903 lit. Ha-Yom D. St. Petersburg 1886–1888 the first Hebrew daily (Feb. 12 1886–March 12, 1888) Ha-Yom D. Warsaw 1906–1907 Ha-Yom D. N.Y. 1909 the first Hebrew daily in the United States (90 days); exact data on the second attempt before World War I unavailable Ha-Yom D. Warsaw 1925–1926 Ha-Yom D. Jer. 1948–1949 originally called Itton ha-Yom; began to appear in Jerusalem during the siege of the War of Independence Ha-Yom D. T.A. 1966–1969 published by Gaḥal; result of merger of two papers, Ha-Boker and Ḥerut Ha-Yonah 1 Berlin 1851 Judaic studies Ha-Yonah 1 Odessa, Russia 1907 rabbinics and Judaica; the first editorial endeavors of Y.L. Maimon (Fishman) Ḥayyei Olam 1 Paris 1878 collection of edited ancient manuscripts Ḥayyei Sha'ah W. T.A. 1953–1958 entertainment Ha-Ẓafon W. Haifa 1926–1927 lit. and general affairs Ha-Ẓa'ir Irr. Zloczow (Zolochev), Ukraine 1910 lit. Ha-Ẓa'ir 1 Jer. 1916 lit. Ha-Ẓefirah 1 Zolkiew (Zholkva), Galicia 1823 lit. Ha-Ẓefirah W. & Warsaw 1862 the first Hebrew newspaper in Warsaw; during the first years D. (Berlin) 1874–1906 devoted mainly to science; 1874–75 in Berlin; from 1886 a daily 1910–1921 and 1917–19 a weekly 1926–1928 1931 Ha-Zeman W. N.Y. 1895–1896 lit. Ha-Zeman F. Cracow, Poland 1890–1891 lit. Ha-Zeman 1 Warsaw 1896 lit. Ha-Zeman Q. St. Petersburg 1903 lit.; published Bialik's famous poem "Be-Ir-ha-Haregah" Ha-Zeman M. Vilna 1905 lit. Ha-Zeman B-W., St. Petersburg- 1903–1915 first 92 issues biweekly; from 1905 in Vilna; know as Hed ha- D. Vilna Zeman, 1907–11 Ha-Zeman D. T.A. 1930 general Ha-Zeman D. T.A. 1941–1944 a nonconformist paper edited by B. Katz, editor of Ha-Zeman in Vilna Ha-Ẓevi W. &D. Jer. 1884–1915 a daily from 1908; sometimes called Ha-Or, Hashkafah; the pioneer of modern journalism in Ereẓ Israel; several interruptions in publication Ha-Zibbul Q. Jaffa-T.A. 1924 problems of agricultural fertilization Ha-Ẓillum M. T.A. 1965 originally appeared in 1947 under the title Ẓillum; from 1971 published by the Association of Amateur Photographers Ha-Ẓir Irr. Jaffa 1919 Mizrachi Ḥazit ha-Am B-W., W. Jer. 1932–1934 Revisionist publication Ḥazit ha-Oved M. T.A. 1958 organ of Ha-Oved ha-Le'ummi in the Histadrut Ha-Ẓiyyoni ha-Kelali W. Jer. 1932–1935 General Zionists Ha-Ẓiyyoni ha-Vatik Irr. T.A. 1940–1941 organ of the old-time Zionists; appeared under various titles Ha-Ẓiyyonut A. T.A. 1970 studies in the history of the Zionist movement and of the Jews in Ereẓ Israel Ha-Ẓofeh Irr. Lvov, Galicia 1878 lit. Ha-Ẓofeh D. Warsaw 1903–1905 general; the first to introduce literary contests; the first prize was won by Y.D. Berkowitz Ha-Ẓofeh D. Jer.-T.A. 1937 organ of Mizrachi – National Religious Party; the first issues were published in Jerusalem Ha-Ẓofeh Irr. Jer. 1935–1946 scouting   Newspapers, Hebrew Ha-Ẓofeh ba-Areẓ ha-Ḥadashah W. N.Y. 1871–1876 the first Hebrew newspaper in the United States Ha-Ẓofeh le-Ḥokhmat Yisrael M. Budapest 1911–1915, Judaic studies; originally called Ha-Ẓofeh me-Ereẓ Hagar 1921–1931 Ha-Ẓofeh le-Veit Yisrael Irr. London 1887 lit. Ha-Ẓofeh le-Veit Yisrael M. Cracow, Poland 1890 lit. Ḥazon Irr. T.A. 1943–1955 Mizrachi youth Ḥazut A. Jer. 1953–1960 discussions on questions of Zionism, the Jewish People, and the State of Israel He-Atid Irr. Berlin 1908–1926 six collections on matters concerning Jews and Judaism He-Atid F. Warsaw 1925–1934 organ of the He-Ḥalutz World Center He-Atid Irr. T.A. 1939–1941 organ of Po'alei Agudat Israel He-Atid Q. T.A. 1966 published by the West German embassy, Tel Aviv He-Avar Q. Petrograd 1918 history of the Jews He-Avar (Heawar) Q. & A. T.A. 1952 history of the Jews in Russia Hed ha-Am – see also: Ha-Hed W. Jer. 1924–1926 religious publication Hed ha-Defus Irr. T.A. 1937–1961 published by the Organization of Printing Workers; the name differs on various editions Hed ha-Gan B-M. T.A. 1934 published by the Association of Nursery School Teachers & M. &Q. Hed ha-Ḥinnukh F. &W. Jer.-T.A. 1926 published by the Teachers' Association; a weekly from 1949 Hed ha-Karmel D. Haifa 1940 general affairs; one of the attempts to establish a daily newspaper in Haifa Hed ha-Kevuẓah Irr. Detroit, Mich. 1941–1961 lit. Hed ha-Mizraḥ F. &W. Jer. 1942–1951 Oriental communities in the past; first issues called Ha-Mizraḥ Hed ha-Moreh M. N.Y. 1915 the first Hebrew pedagogical periodical in the U.S. Hed ha-Sport W. T.A. 1965–1966 sports Hed ha-Zeman – see: Ha-Zeman Hed ha-Ẓiyyoni ha-Vatik – see: Ha-Ẓiyyoni ha-Vatik Hedim B-M. T.A. 1922–1928 the leading literary journal in the 1920s Hedim li-She'elot ha-Ḥevrah ha-Kibbutzit Irr. &Q. Merḥ avyah 1934 organ of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Arẓi Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir Hed Lita F. Kaunas (Kovno), Lithuania 1924–1925 lit. Hed Yerushalayim W. Jer. 1939–1946 general affairs; during the final year of publication called Ha-Shavu'on ha-Ereẓ Yisre'eli ve-Hed Yerushalayim Hegeh D. T.A. 1940–1947 vocalized daily Hegeh W. T.A. 1939–1940 afternoon paper of Davar Hegeh W. T.A. 1947–1949 Saturday evening paper He-Hadar M. T.A. 1928–1940 citrus He-Ḥalutz Irr. Lvov-Breslau-Prague-Frankfurt-Vienna 1852–1889 Judaic studies He-Ḥalutz ha-Ẓa'ir Irr. Warsaw 1926–1939 published by He-Ḥalutz ha-Ẓa'ir; partly in Yiddish He-Ḥaver Irr. Berne-Berlin 1912, 1914 organ of the student Zionist organization He-Ḥaver Heikhal ha-Ivri W. Chicago 1877–1879 the first Hebrew paper in Chicago Ḥeil ha-Avir S-A. T.A. 1948 air force organ Ḥeil ha-Yam – see: Ma'arekhot Yam Ḥemdah Genuzah A. Koenigsberg, E. Prussia 1856 collection of edited ancient manuscripts Ḥermon A. Lvov, Galicia 1902–1903 lit.   Newspapers, Hebrew Ḥerut D. T.A. 1948–1966 organ of the Ḥerut Party; a number of editions were published earlier in Jerusalem as a weekly Ḥeshbona'ut u-Missim Irr. T.A.-Ramat Gan 1962–1967 published by the Union of Accountants and Tax Consultants Heyeh Nakhon Q. Jer.-T.A. 1946 scouting Higyenah Ruḥanit M. Jer. 1944–1951 hygiene in the schools Higyenah u-Veri'ut Q. Jer. 1940–1948 health and hygiene Ḥikrei Avodah Q. T.A. 1947–1954 labor studies and social security Ḥinnukh Q. N.Y. 1935–1939 education Ḥok u-Mishpat F. Jer.-T.A. 1954 law Ḥol va-Ru'aḥ 1 Holon 1964 lit., Hebrew and Yiddish Horeb S-A. N.Y. 1934–1960 Judaica studies Ḥotam F. T.A. 1964 Mapam; from 1970 weekly magazine of Al ha-Mishmar Iddan Ḥadash M. T.A. 1968 organ of Ha-Merkaz ha-Hofshi Iggeret la-Ḥaverim W. T.A. 1951 organ of Iḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim; continuation of Iggeret; organ of Ḥever ha-Kevuẓot Iggeret le-Ḥinnukh Q. T.A.-Tel Yosef 1952 educational organ of Iḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim Iggeret li-Meḥannekhim B-M. T.A. 1964 educational organ of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad Ikkarei Yisrael A. T.A. 1954–1962 annual of the Farmers' Association Ikkarei Yisrael M. T.A. 1962 organ of the Farmers' Association Ittim W. T.A. 1946–1948 lit. Itton ha-Bonim M. T.A. 1937–1939 organ of the Association of Landlords and Property Owners 1946–1949 Itton le-Misḥar Irr. T.A. 1936–1939 trade Itton Meyuḥad W. T.A.-Jer. 1933–1951 pioneer of sensational reportage Ivri Anokhi W. Brody-Galicia 1865–1890 indirect continuation of Ha-Mevasser, sometimes: Ha-Ivri Iyyim 1 London 1928 lit. Iyyun Q. T.A.-Jer. 1945 philosophy Iyyunim Beinle'ummiyyim Irr. Ramat Gan 1951–1964 international affairs – superseded by International Outlook Iyyunim bi-Ve'ayot Ḥevrah A. T.A. 1969 social, educational and cultural problems Iyyunim le-Vikkoret ha-Medinah Q. Jer. 1960 Bulletin of the State Comptroller's Office Jewish Book Annual Q. N.Y. 1942 Hebrew-English-Yiddish, bibliography Kadimah M. N.Y. 1899 lit. Kadimah 1 Kiev, Ukraine 1920 philosophy and science of religion Kalkelan W., M. Jer 1952 finance and economy Kammah A. Jer. 1948–1952 Keren Kayemeth Karmelit A. Haifa 1954 lit. Karmi M. Pressburg (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia 1881–1882 general, Hebrew and Ladino Karmi Shelli Irr. Vienna 1891 general, Hebrew and Ladino Karnenu Q. Jer. 1924–1963 Keren Kayemeth, superseded by Am ve-Admato Katif A. Petaḥ Tikvah 1954 Kav Q. Jer. 1965 lit. Kavveret 1 Odessa, Russia 1890 lit.; Ḥibbat Zion Kaẓir M. T.A. 1945–1946 digest of books Kaẓir 1. T.A. 1964 history of Zionism in Russia Kedem Irr. Jer. 1942, 1945 archaeology of Palestine Kedmah M. T.A. 1963–1964 organ of Betar Kehilliyyatenu 1 T.A.-Haifa 1922 the first organ of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir in Ereẓ Israel, new reprint Keneset 1 Odessa, Russia 1917 lit. Keneset 1 T.A. 1928 lit. Keneset A. T.A. 1936–1946 lit.; Bialik and Judaic studies 1960 Keneset ha-Gedolah Irr. Warsaw 1890–1891 lit. Keneset Yisrael A. Warsaw 1886–1889 lit. Keneset Yisrael M. Vilna 1930–1934 rabbinics   Newspapers, Hebrew Kerem Ḥemed A. Vienna-Berlin 1833–1856 lit. and Judaic studies, 9 vols. Keren Or M. Chicago 1889 lit.; only 2 issues Kesafim u-Misḥar D. T.A. 1966–1967 finance and economy Kesher ve-Elektronikah M. T.A. 1967 electronics, Israel Defense Forces Keshet Q. T.A. 1958 lit. Ketavim Q. Reḥovot-Bet Dagon 1951 Agricultural Research Station Ketuvim W. T.A. 1926–1933 lit.; organ of the young Avantgardists Kevuẓat Ḥakhamim 1 Vienna 1861 Judaic studies Kikyon Yonah 1 Paris 1860 Judaic studies Kirjath Sepher Q. Jer. 1924 bibliography of the Jewish National and University Library Jer.; the first regular scientific publication of the Hebrew University Kitvei ha-Universitah 1 Jer. 1924 Judaic studies, mathematics and physics; printed in Leipzig Ko'aḥ Ḥadash Irr. T.A. 1966–1967 organ of Ha-Olam ha-Zeh – Ko'aḥ Ḥadash Kohelet 1 St. Petersburg 1881 lit. Kohelet Musar Irr. Berlin 1750 the first literary-moralistic periodical in Hebrew; 2 issues, 2 reprints Kokhevei Yiẓḥhak A. Vienna 1845–1869 lit.; central organ of the Hebrew Haskalah movement; 37 vols. 1873 Kol – see: Ha-Kol Kol ha-Am D., W. T.A. 1947 Communist; from the 1920s in various forms; underground newspaper; 1970 – weekly Kol ha-No'ar Irr. T.A. 1940–1966 Communist youth Kol ha-Shabbat M. Jer. 1957 Sabbath observance Kol Nekhei Milḥamah M. T.A 1949 war invalids Kolno'a F. T.A. 1931–1935 cinema; the first of its kind Kolot M. Warsaw 1923–1924 lit. Kol Sinai M. Jer. 1962 religious Kol Torah M. Jer. 1929, 1932 rabbinics Kol Ya'akov W. Jer. 1922–1928 religious 1933–1934 Kol Yisrael W. Jer. 1921–1929 Agudat Israel Komemiyyut A. T.A. 1951–1954 lit.; appeared each year on Independence Day Ko'operazyah F. T.A. 1930–1939 cooperative affairs Korot – see also: Ha-Ittonai ha-Ivri Q. T.A. 1952 history of medicine and science Korot M. T.A 1970 history of the yishuv and Zionism Koveẓ al Yad (Kobez al jad) Irr. Berlin-Jer. 1885 editions of ancient manuscripts; vols. 1–10 Berlin, N.S. Jer. 1937– Koveẓ ha-Ḥevrah la-Ḥakirat Ereẓ Yisrael Irr. Jer. 1921–1945 archaeology of Palestine and history of the yishuv; 4 vols; in several parts Koveẓ Harẓa'ot ha-Ḥevrah ha-Historit Irr. Jer. 1964–1966 lectures on history from the annual seminar of the society Koveẓ Harẓa'ot shel ha-lggud ha-Yisre'eli le lbbud informaẓyah A. Jer. 1965 information processing – partly in English Koveẓ ha-Tammim Irr. Warsaw 1935–1937 Ḥasidei Ḥabad, Ḥasidei Lubavitch Koveẓ li-Ve'ayot ha-Ḥinnukh ha-Gufani B-M. T.A. 1962–1965 Wingate Institute, physical education Koveẓ Ma'amarim le-Divrei Yemei ha-Ittonut ha-Ivrit be-Ereẓ Yisrael A. T.A. 1935–1936 history of the Hebrew press in Ereẓ Israel Koveẓ Schocken le-Divrei Sifrut 1 T.A. 1941 lit.; superseded by Lu'ah ha-Areẓ Koveẓ Sifruti A. Jer. 1914 lit.; ed. by Po'alei Zion Kunteres W. T.A. 1919–1929 organ of Aḥdut ha-Avodah; in the 1940s of Mapai 1940–1944 Kunteres Irr. Riga-Warsaw 1929–1937 Ḥasidei Lubavitch Kunteres Bibliografi M. T.A. 1950–1970 bibliography Kunteres ha-Sefer ha-Torani – see: Ha-Sefer Kunteresim Irr. Jer. 1937–1942 Hebrew language studies; new ed. 1964 Lada'at M. Jer. 1970 popular science La-Gever M. T.A. 1963–1969 entertainment   Newspapers, Hebrew La-Ḥayyal – see: Ha-Ḥayyal La-Ishah W. T.A. 1947 women's magazine La-Kore ha-Ẓa'ir M. T.A. 1950–1954 bibliography La-Matḥil W. Jer. 1955 easy Hebrew; for some years did not appear in order La-Merḥav D. T.A. 1954–1971 organ of Aḥdut ha-Avodah, the first months as F. and W.; merged with Davar La-Mishpaḥah M. N.Y. 1963 general La-Mo'ed Irr. Jer. 1945–1947 collections for festivals; 7 appeared La-Ya'aran Q. Netanyah 1950 forestry La-Yehudim A. Jer. 1909–1912 humor, the first humorist periodical in Ereẓ Israel 1921–1925 La-Yogev A. T.A. 1945–1949 cultivation problems Le-Aḥdut ha-Avodah W. T.A. 1944–1948 organ of Le-Aḥdut ha-Avodah party, from its split with Mapai until its amalgamation with Mapam Lefi Sha'ah Irr. Jer. 1915–1917 8 issues during World War I Leket Amarim 1 St. Petersburg 1889 lit. Le-Ma'an ha-Yeled ve-ha-No'ar F. Jer. 1942–1949 Szold Institute for children and youth Le-Shabbat W. Jer. 1922 general Leshonenu Q. Jer. 1928 Hebrew language studies Leshonenu la-am M. Jer. 1945 Hebrew language studies in popular form Lev Ḥadash Irr. T.A.-Jer. 1922–1928 critical-radical Le Yad ha-Hegeh Irr. T.A. 1952–1959 taxi drivers' bulletin Li-Kerat Irr. T.A. 1952–1953 Hebrew young writers Likkud M. T.A. 1946–1947 leftist Livyat Ḥen 1 Warsaw 1887 lit. Lu'aḥ Aḥi'asaf A. Warsaw 1893–1904, lit.; 13 vols. 1923 Lu'aḥ Aḥi'ever A. N.Y. 1918, 1921 lit.; 2 vols. Lu'aḥ Ereẓ Yisrael A. Jer. 1895–1915 Palestinography and lit.; 21 vols. Lu'aḥ ha-Areẓ A. T.A. 1941–1954 lit.; almanac of Haaretz Lu'aḥ ha-Em-ve-ha-Yeled–see: Ha-Em-ve-ha-Yeled Lu'aḥ ha-Me'orer 1 T.A. 1935 Ereẓ Israel labor movement Lu'aḥ Keren Kayemet – see: Moladti Lu'aḥ Ko'operativi A. T.A. 1931 cooperative types; now; Lu'aḥ ha-Ko'operaẓyah Lu'aḥ Sha'ashu'im 1 Cracow, Poland 1902 lit. Lu'aḥ Yerushalayim A. Jer. 1940–1951 history of Jerusalem and the yishuv; 12 vols. Ma'anit A. Jer. 1926 lit.; Hebrew writers for Keren Kayemeth Ma'anit B-M. T.A. 1939–1954 youth of Tenu'at ha-Moshavim Ma'anit Irr. T.A. 1946–1958 moshavim of Ha-Po'el ha-Mizrachi Ma'arakhot M., Q. T.A. 1939 military journal of the Haganah and the Israel Defense Forces Ma'arekhot Ḥimmush Q. T.A. 1961 ammunition problems, ordinance corps Ma'arekhot Yam Q. T.A. 1948 naval organ Ma'ariv D. T.A. 1948 independent; the first issues – Yedi'ot Ma'ariv Ma'avak Irr. T.A. 1947 organ of the Kena'anim Ma'avak W. T.A. 1952–1954 party organ which separated from Mapam until its amalgamation with Mapai Ma'abarot M. T.A.-Jaffa 1919–1921 literary organ of Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir Mabbat Ḥadash W. T.A. 1965–1968 organ of Rafi Mabbu'a Q. N.Y. 1952–1954 lit. Mabbu'a A. Jer. 1963 religious literature Madda B-M. Jer 1956 popular science Madda'ei ha-Yahadut A. Jer. 1926–1927 Judaic studies of the Hebrew University, Jer.; continuation of Yedi'ot ha-Makhon le-Madda'ei ha-Yahadut Madrikh li-Mekomot Avodah Me'urganim A. T.A. 1956–1965 list of work places where work is organized by the Histadrut   Newspapers, Hebrew Maggid Mishneh W. Lyck, E. Prussia 1879–1881 lit. Maḥanayim Irr. T.A. 1948 collections for the festivals and specific subjects by the army chaplaincy; the first 18 booklets called Yalkut ha-Rabbanut ha-Ẓeva'it Maḥanot M. T.A. 1942–1947 organ of the camp workers Maḥazikei ha-Dat W. Lvov, Galicia 1879–1913 extreme Orthodox, sometimes Kol Maḥazikei ha-Dat Maḥazikei ha-Dat W., B-M. Jer. 1919–1924 extreme Orthodox, partly in Yiddish Maḥbarot le-Marxizm Irr. Givat Havivah 1950–1951 studies on Marxism Maḥbarot le-Sifrut B-M. T.A. 1940–1954 lit. Maḥbarot le-Soẓyologyah B-M. T.A. 1943–1945 sociology Maḥberet Q. Jer. 1952–1967 lit. organ of Alliance Israélite Universelle, partly in French Makkabbi – see: Ha-Makkabbi Marot ha-Kalkalah be-Yisrael M. Jer. 1955–1966 economics Masakh Irr. T.A. 1954–1955 lit., theater and art Maslul W. T.A. 1951–1952 for Yemenite and Eastern immigrants Massa F. T.A. 1951–1954 lit., from 1954 literary supplement of La-Merḥav and from 1971 of Davar Massad A. N.Y. 1933, 1936 lit. Massad Irr. T.A. 1951, 1967 No'ar Dati Oved Massekhet 1 T.A. 1951 lit. Massu'ot 1 Odessa, Russia 1919 lit. Mattekhet Q. Haifa 1958–1967 Israel metal industry in the Technion 1971 Ma'yan ha-Ḥasidut – see also: Ha-Ma'yan A. Jer. 1964 ḥasidic affairs Ma'yanot A. Jer. 1952–1968 religious Maẓpen Irr. T.A. 1943–1944 pro-Revisionist Maẓpen W. T.A. 1954–1955 general Maẓpen Irr. T.A.-Jer. 1963 leftist Me'assef – see also: Ha-Me'assef 1 St. Petersburg 1902 lit. Me'assef A. Jer.-T.A. 1960–1968 lit.; 8 vols. Me'assefim Madda'iyyim shel ha-Tekhniyyon Irr. Haifa 1944–1955 science; 6 vols. Me'assef Soferei Ereẓ Yisrael 1 T.A. 1940 lit. Me'assef Soferei Ereẓ Yisrael 1 T.A. 1942 lit.; 2 vols Me'at me-Harbeh 1 T.A. 1947 lit. Me-Et le-Et 1 N.Y. 1900 lit. Me-Et le-Et M. Vilna 1918 lit. Megammot Q. Jer. 1949 child problems by Szold Institute Meged Geresh Yeraḥim M. Vienna 1848 lit.; supplement to the weekly Centralorgan fuer juedische interessen Meged Yeraḥim M. Lvov, Galicia 1855–1856 lit.; 4 issues Megillot M. Jer. 1950–1953 Hebrew culture and education Me-Ḥag le-Ḥag Irr. N.Y.-Baltimore 1915, 1918 lit.; 2 issues Mehallekhim Irr. Jer. 1969 organ of the Torah Judaism movement Me-Havvayot ha-Zeman M., T.A. 1944–1946 contemporary affairs Irr. 1952 Meḥkarim be-Geografyah shel Ereẓ Yisrael A. Jer. 1960 Palestinography Me'ir Einayim A. Bene-Berak 1968–1969 bibliography Mekhes ve-Ta'avurah Irr. T.A. 1949–1956 organ of the Association of Customs Agents Mekhon ha-Tekanim Q. T.A. 1968 Israel Standards Institute Melilah A. Manchester, England 1944–1955 Judaic studies; 5 vols. (double 3/4) Meliẓ Eḥad Minni Elef 1 St. Petersburg 1884 lit.; in honor of the 100th copy of Ha-Meliẓ Menorah F. Lodz, Poland 1930 Judaic studies Meshek ha-Bakar ve-ha-Ḥalav Q. T.A. 1952 dairy farming   Newspapers, Hebrew Meshek ha-Ofot M. T.A.-Tel Yosef 1949 poultry farming Mesibbah 1 T.A. 1926 lit.; the first editing work in Ereẓ Israel by E. Steinman Mesillot M. Warsaw 1935–1937 education and Hebrew culture Meteorologyah be-Yisrael Q. Bet Dagon 1963 meteorology Mevasseret Ẓiyyon M. Jer. 1884 the first periodical edited by E. Ben-Yehuda; 4 issues Mevo'ot M. T.A. 1953–1956 lit. Meẓudah Irr. London 1943–1954 lit. and Judaic studies; 5 vols. (2 doubles) Mi-Bayit 1 T.A. 1946 lit.; from Ereẓ Israel authors for the remnants of the Holocaust Mi-Bifenim Irr., Q. En-Harod-T.A. 1923 organ of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad; new reprint of the first 28 issues Mifgash Irr. T.A. 1964 lit.; first of its kind in Hebrew; Hebrew and Arabic literature; Hebrew and Arabic on parallel pages Mi-Keren Zavit 1 Detroit, Mich.-Baltimore, Md. 1921 lit. Mikhtav Ḥozer – see: Ha-Refu'ah Mikkun Ḥakla'i Q. T.A. 1956 farm mechanization Miklat M. N.Y. 1919–1920 lit. Milḥamtenu – see also: Be-Terem Mi-Mizraḥ u-mi-Ma'arav M., Irr. Vienna-Berlin 1894–1899 lit. and Judaic studies Minḥah 1 T.A. 1930 lit. Min ha-Yesod F. T.A. 1962–1965 organ of Min ha-Yesod faction; two collections were issued with the name in 1962–63 Misḥar ha-Makkolet M. T.A. 1940–1951 grocery business; previously issued under Soḥer ha-Makkolet Misḥar ve-Ta'asiyyah F. T.A. 1923–1933 trade, factories, and agriculture Mishmar – see: Al ha-Mishmar Mishpat ha-Shalom ha-Ivri 1 T.A. 1925 magistrates' court problems during the Mandate Mishpat ve-Khalkalah M. T.A. 1955–1959 law and economics Mi-Teiman 1 T.A. 1938 history of the Yemenite Jews' immigration to Israel Mi-Tekufat ha-Even A. Jer. 1960 prehistoric studies in Israel Mivrak D. T.A. 1947–1948 afternoon paper; organ of Leḥi Mi-Yamim Rishonim M. T.A. 1934–1935 history of Zionism and the yishuv Mi-Yerushalayim Irr. Warsaw 1892 lit.; Ereẓ Israel topics; 2 issues Mi-Ẓiyyon 1 Warsaw 1895 lit. Miẓpeh – see also: Ha-Miẓpeh 1 T.A. 1953 lit.; Ha-Ẓofeh annual Mizraḥ u-Ma'arav M. Jer. 1919–1932 Judaic studies, in particular on Spanish and Sephardi Jewry Mo'adon Mekhoniyyot ve-Sayyarut be-Yisrael M. T.A. 1966 automobile and touring club Molad M., B-M. T.A.-Jer. 1948 lit.; N.S. 1967-the last years B-M. Moladti A. Jer. 1936–1938 most years on behalf of Keren ha-Kayemeth Moriyyah W. &D. Jer. 1910–1915 Orthodox; from 1913, daily Moznayim W. T.A. 1929–1933 lit.; organ of the Hebrew Writers' Association Moznayim M. T.A. 1933–1947 lit.; organ of the Hebrew Writers' Association 1955 Moznayim F. T.A. 1948 lit.; organ of the Hebrew Writers' Association Muze'on ha-Areẓ A. T.A. 1959 on all museums in the Tel Aviv vicinity Naḥali'el Irr. Jer. 1965 religious Nativ Irr. T.A. 1934–1935 a nonconformist periodical by A.L. Yaffe, "the father of the moshavim" Ner F., Irr. Jer. 1950 Jewish-Arab relations Ner ha-Ma'aravi M. N.Y. 1895, 1897 lit. Ner Ma'aravi A. N.Y. 1922, 1925 rabbinics and Judaica   Newspapers, Hebrew Nerot Shabbat Irr. Jer. 1943–1952 Sabbath observance Netivah F., Irr. Jer. 1926–1938, Ha-Po'el ha-Mizraḥi 1943 Netivei Irgun M., B-M. Jer. 1954 organization and administration; from 1969 B-M. Netivot 1 Warsaw 1913 lit. Netivot A. Jer. 1953–1968 religious education for Diaspora Jews Nimim 1 N.Y. 1923 lit.; printed in Berlin Nir – see also: Ha-Nir A. N.Y. 1952 education and lit.; continuation of Ha-Nir 1930–38 Nir M. T.A. 1948–1959 education through J.N.F. Nisan 1 Warsaw 1930 lit. Nisan 1 T.A. 1942 lit. Niv Irr. N.Y. 1936–1966 lit.; organ of the Young Hebrew Writers in U.S. Niv ha-Kevuẓah Irr., Q. T.A. 1930 organ of Ḥever ha-Kevuẓot and from 1952 of Iḥud ha-Kevuzot ve-ha-Kibbutzim; some interruptions Niv ha-Midrashiyyah A. T.A. 1963 lit. rabbinics, religious education Niv ha-Moreh M. T.A. 1958 teachers of Agudat Israel Niv ha-Rofe Q.&S-A. T.A. 1951 organ of the Histadrut doctors Niẓoẓ Irr. Kaunas (Kovno)-Dachau-Munich 1940–1948 at the beginning in Kovno ghetto and Dachau camp, then in Munich, the only permanent Hebrew newspaper of the remnants from the Holocaust No'am A. Jer. 1958 clarification of contemporary halakhic problems Nogah ha-Yare'aḥ M. Lvov-Tarnopol, 1872–1873 Judaic studies, lit. Galicia 1880 Ofakim Irr. Warsaw 1932–1934 education Ofakim Irr. T.A. 1943–1961 education by Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir Ofek 1 T.A. 1970 lit. Ohel – see also: Ha-Ohel 1 T.A. 1921 lit. Ohel Mo'ed Irr. Cracow, Poland 1898–1900 rabbinics Ohel Mo'ed Irr. Warsaw 1926–1935 rabbinics Ohel Torah M. Jer. 1926–1927 rabbinics Irr. 1929 Oholei Gadna M. T.A. 1952–1960 vocalized, for Gadna Olamenu 1 Odessa Petrograd, Moscow 1917 lit. Olam ha-Defus M, Q. T.A. 1956 typography Olam ha-Elektronikah M. Jer. 1962–1965 electronics, continuation of Radio ve-Elektronikah Olam ha-Ishah F. T.A. 1940–1963 women's magazine Olam ha-Kolno'a W. T.A. 1951 cinema Olam ha-Mistorin Q. T.A. 1968 parapsychology Olam ha-Sefer Irr. T.A. 1954–1958 organ of publishers; superseded by Ha-Sefer be-Yisrael Olam ha-Ẓillum M. T.A. 1966–1967 photography Olamot Aḥerim Irr. T.A. 1970 parapsychology Omer – see also: Ha-Omer 1 T.A. 1927 lit. Omer W., Irr. T.A. 1936–1942 weekly 1936–39; from then on monthly sometimes in place of the banned Davar Omer D. T.A. 1951–1979 daily; vocalized (with Davar) Omer A. T.A. 1955–1960 rabbinics Ommanut Q. Jer. 1940–1942 art Ommanut ha-Kolno'a Irr. T.A. 1957–1963 cinema Or ha-Mizraḥ Q. N.Y. 1954 rabbinics, Judaic studies Orlogin Irr. T.A. 1950–1957 lit.; 13 issues Orot Irr. T.A. 1950–1955 cultural work of the Histadrut; 3 vols. Orot B-M. Jer. 1950–1966 lit. and Hebrew culture; N.S. from 1968 Q.; partly in English Q. 1968   Newspapers, Hebrew Or Torah Irr. Lvov, Galicia-Frankfurt, Germany 1874 lit.; 4 issues Or Torah Q. Jer. 1897–1901 rabbinics Oshyot Irr. T.A. 1947–1957 educational problems before school Ot Irr., W. T.A. 1966–1968 organ of the Israel Labor Party 1971 Ovnayim A. Bet Berl 1961–1966 collection – Bet Berl affairs Oẓar Genazim 1 Jer. 1960 printed manuscript letters on history of Ereẓ Israel Oẓar ha-Ḥayyim Irr. De a-Seini, Romania 1924–1938 Judaic studies Oẓar ha-Ḥokhmah ve-ha-Madda Irr. N.Y. 1894 lit.; 2 issues Oẓar ha-Sifrut A. 1887–1896 lit.; 5 vols.+1 1902 Oẓar Ḥokhmah Irr. Lvov, Galicia 1859–1865 lit.; 3 issues Oẓar Neḥmad Irr. Vienna-Pressburg (Bratislava), Czechoslovakia 1858–1863 Judaic studies; 4 vols. Oẓar Tov Irr. Berlin 1878–1886 mainly editions of Hebrew manuscripts Oẓar Yehudei Sefarad A. Jer. 1959 research on Spanish Jewry past and present Palmaḥ – see: Alon ha-Palmaḥ Pamalyah 1 T.A. 1953 lit. collection dedicated to young authors Panim el Panim W. T.A.-Jer. 1954–1956 religious illustrated magazine, during the interruption appeared as 1959 Ayin be-Ayin – see there. Pardes – see also: Ha-Pardes Irr. Odessa, Russia 1892–1896 lit. 3 vols; in the first volume Bialik's first poem was published Pargod Irr. Jer. 1963, 1966 theater, 2 issues Perakim (Peraqim) Irr. N.Y. 1955–1966 Judaic studies 4 vols.; organ of Hebrew Academy in N.Y. Perakim F. Haifa 1958–1965 lit. continuation of the journal of the same name in Buenos Aires Peri Eẓ Ḥayyim Irr. Amsterdam 1691–1807 the first rabbinical periodical Peri To'elet 1 Amsterdam 1825 lit. Perozedor Irr. T.A. 1962–1965 problems of religion 1968 Pesi'ot Irr. Jer. 1926–1935 educational problems in the low grades Petaḥ A. Bet-Berl 1959–1968 studies on various problems Petaḥim B-M. Jer. 1967 modern approach to religion Pinkas Histadrut ha-Ovedim Irr. T.A. 1922–1925 the first periodical of the Histadrut; superseded by Davar Pinkas Histadrut ha-Ovedim M. T.A. 1936–1938 new series in another form Pinkas le-Inyenei ha-Pekidim – see: Shurot Pirḥei Ẓafon A. Vilna 1841, 1844 lit.; the first Hebrew periodical in Russia Pirkei Bessarabyah Irr. T.A. 1952, 1958 history of the Bessarabian Jewry; 2 vols. Pirsumei ha-Iggud ha-Yisre'eli le-Ibbud Informaẓyah A. T.A. 1968 information processing Praxis Irr. T.A. 1968 leftist Problemai – see: Ha-Problemai Problemot M., Irr. T.A. 1962 nonconformist-anarchist; party in Yiddish Qadmoniot Q. Jer. 1968 archaeology of Palestine and biblical lands Radio W. Jer. 1960–1962 Kol Israel newspaper Radio ve-Elektronikah M. Jer. 1957–1961 radio and electronics Radio Yerushalayim W. Jer. 1938–1942 radio newspaper of the Mandate; superseded by Ha-Galgal; in the times of Ha-Galgal, supplement for few years; partly in English   Newspapers, Hebrew Ramah M. N.Y. 1937–1939 lit. Ramzor M. Jer.-T.A. 1961–1962 in the beginning, organ of the Mapai student cell in Jerusalem; 1965 from 1965, Mapai youth in Tel Aviv Refu'ah Veterinarit Irr., M. T.A.-Bet Dagon 1939 in the beginning irregular; organ of veterinary surgeons Refu'ah ha-Shinnayim B-M. T.A. 1944 organ of dentists Reshafim W. Warsaw 1909 lit.; 50 issues Reshimat Ma'amarim be-Madda'ei ha-Yahadut A. Jer. 1967 index of articles on Jewish studies Reshimat Pirsumei ha-Memshalah Q. Jer. 1956 list of government publications Reshit Q. Warsaw 1933–1934 lit. Reshummot Irr. Odessa-Berlin-T.A. 1918–1930 folklore, first issued in Odessa; 6 vols. Reshumot A. T.A. 1945–1953 folklore; 5 vols. Revivim Irr. Lvov-Jer.-Jaffa 1908–1919 lit.; 6 vols. Rihut ve-Dekoraẓyah Q. T.A. 1961 furnishing and decoration Rimmon Irr. Berlin 1922–1924 lit. and art Rimmon W. T.A. 1956–1957 ill. weekly Rimmon Irr. Buenos Aires 1966–1968 lit. Rivon ha-Aguddah ha-Zo'otekhnit Q. Reḥovot 1969 Association of Zootechnics Rivon Handasat Betiḥut Q. T.A. 1968 security engineering Rivon Katan Q. N.Y. 1944 lit.; 2 issues Rivon le-Banka'ut Q. T.A. 1961 banking Rivon le-Inyenei Missim Q. Jer. 1965 taxes Rivon le-Khalkalah Q. T.A. 1953 economics Rivon le-Matematikah Q. Jer. 1946 mathematics Rivon Merkaz ha-Beniyyah ha-Yisre'eli Q, T.A. 1970 building Rivon Mishteret Yisrael Q. T.A. 1956–1965 police Ro'eh ha-Ḥeshbon Irr., T.A. 1939–1946 accounting B-M. 1950 Rotary Yisrael Q. Ramat Gan 1960 Rotary Sa'ad B-M. Jer. 1957 social welfare Saddan Irr. T.A.-Jer. 1924–1926 lit.; organ of U.Ẓ. Greenberg Sadot Irr. T.A. 1938–1945 under various names – Ha-No'ar ha-Lomed Sarid u-Falit 1 T.A. 1945 Judaic studies (mainly editions of manuscripts) Sedarim 1 T.A. 1942 lit.; 4 vols. Sedemot Irr. T.A. 1949–1954 Ha-No'ar ha-Lomed Sedemot Q. T.A. 1960 previously Iḥud ha-Kevuẓot ve-ha-Kibbutzim, later youths from all various collective settlements Sefatenu Irr. Odessa-Berlin 1917, 1923 Hebrew language studies Sefatenu 1 T.A. 1927 league of defenders of the Hebrew language Sefer ha-Misḥar Q. T.A. 1964–1967 commerce Sefer ha-Shanah – see also: Shenaton A. Warsaw 1900–1906 lit.; 5 vols Sefer ha-Shanah A. Chicago 1935–1959 lit.; College of Jewish Studies Sefer ha-Shanah A. N.Y.-T.A. 1964 history of Polish Jewry; first English, Hebrew, and Yiddish, 2–3 Yiddish and Hebrew Sefer ha-Shanah be-Amerikah shel A. N.Y. 1931–1947 lit.; superseded by Yisrael Histadrut Benei Ereẓ Yisrael Sefer ha-Shanah le Bibliografyah A. Warsaw 1934 Jewish bibliography in Poland; 1 vol. Yehudit be-Polanyah Sefer ha-Shanah ha-Em ve-ha-Yeled –see: Ha-Em ve-ha-Yeled Sefer ha-Shanah le-Anaf ha-Beniyyah A. T.A. 1966, 1969 building trade; in 1935 building annual issued Sefer ha-Shanah li-Kehillot ve-Irgunim A. Jer. 1970 world Jewish communities and organizations annual Sefer ha-Shanah li-Melekhet ha-Defus A. T.A. 1938 typography and printing; 1 vol. Sefer ha-Shanah li-Yhudei Amerikah A. N.Y. 1931–1949 lit.; 11 vols. (2 doubles) Sefer ha-Shanah li-Yhudei Polanyah A. Cracow, Poland 1938 Polish Jewry; 1 vol.   Newspapers, Hebrew Sefer ha-Shanah shel Ereẓ Yisrael A. T.A. 1923–1926 lit. 1934–1935 Sefer ha-Shanah shel ha-Ittona'im A. T.A. 1942 journalists and journalism Sefunot A. Jer. 1956–1966 research on the Jewish communities in the East Sekirah Ḥodshit M. T.A. 1954 monthly review and for the Israel Defense Forces Semol Irr. T.A. 1953–1954 Moshe Sneh's organ, between his leaving Mapam and joining Maki Seneh M. Warsaw 1929 lit. Senuit M. Lvov, Galicia 1910–1912 lit. Sha'arei Beri'ut M. T.A. 1931–1932 health and hygiene Sha'arei Halakhot A. Jer. 1966 rabbinics Sha'arei Torah M. Warsaw 1907–1927 rabbinics Sha'arei Ẓiyyon W. Jer. 1876–1884 in the first year partly in Yiddish; the first Yiddish newspaper in Ereẓ Israel Sha'ar la-Kore he-Ḥadash W. Jer. 1961 easy Hebrew, vocalized Sha'ar Ẓiyyon B-M. London 1946 religious, Judaic studies; partly in English Shaḥarit M. Odessa-Warsaw 1913 lit. Shaḥmat Irr. T.A.-Haifa-Jer. 1923, 1932 chess – various newspapers under this name or Ha-Shaḥmat 1936–1937 1946, 1960 Shai 1 Jer. 1925 lit.; Hebrew writers for J.N.F. Shallekhet 1 Lvov, Galicia 1910 lit. Shalom Irr. T.A. 1953–1956 organ of the Peace Movement Shanah be-Shanah A. Jer. 1960 religious, lit.; annual of Hechal Shlomo in Jer.; the first volume called: Halikhot She'arim W., D. T.A. 1945–1981 Po'alei Agudat Israel from 1939; W. from 1949, daily from 1951 Sheḥakim Irr. Kefar Ḥabad 1969 organ of Aircraft Industries She'ifoteinu Irr., M. Jer. 1927–1933 organ of Bet Shalom (Jewish-Arab cooperation) Shelabbim – see: Ha-Po'el ha-Vatik Sheluḥot M. Jer. 1945–1962 religious youth department of the Jewish Agency, continuation of Iggeret la-Golah Sheluḥot F. T.A. 1950–1955 department of Yemenites belonging to Mapai Shelumei Emunei Yisrael A. Odessa, Russia 1898–1902 lit.; 4 vols. Shema'atin Q. Bene Berak 1963 organ of teachers of religious subjects in religious secondary schools Shemoneh ba-Erev W. T.A. 1968 radio and T.V. Shenaton – see also: Sefer ha-Shabat A. T.A. 1951, 1953 Agudat Israel-America Agudat Yisrael-Amerikah Shenaton ha-Aguddah ha-Yisre'lit le-Shikkum A. T.A. 1964 rehabilitation of invalids and soldiers Shenaton ha-Histadrut A. T.A. 1963 sketches of Histadrut activities Shenaton ha-Hitaḥadut le- A. T.A. 1959 football Khadduregei 1964/65 Shenaton ha-Memshalah A. Jer. 1949 activities of the government; appears also in English as Government Yearbook Shenation ha-Po'el A. T.A. 1968 sport Shenation ha-Sefer – see: Jewish Book Annual Shenaton ha-Student A. Jer. 1965–1966 students in Israel 1968 Shenaton ha-Televizyah A. Haifa 1969 T.V. Shenaton Ḥerut A. T.A. 1953–1954 activities of Ḥerut movement Shenaton Hidrologi A. Jer. 1950 hydrology Shenaton le-Mishpat Ivri A. Jer. 1970 Jewish law Shenaton Massadah A. Ramat Gan 1968 1967 events Shenaton Statisti le-Yisrael A. Jer. 1950 statistical summary Shenaton Yedi'ot Aḥaronot A. T.A. 1966 newspaper annual; also called Yedi'on   Newspapers, Hebrew Shenaton Yisrael le-Ommanut ha-Ẓillum A. T.A. 1963 photography Shenayim Plus M. T.A. 1970 ill. entertainment magazine Shevet va-Am A. Jer. 1954–1960 Sephardi Jews past and present 1970 Shevilei ha-Ḥinnukh F., Q. N.Y. 1925–1930 education 1940 Shevilim Irr. T.A. 1955–1958 organ of Ha-No'ar ha-Ẓiyyoni Shevilin S-A., A. T.A. 1962 organ of rabbis in Mizrachi and Ha-Po'el ha-Mizrachi movement Shevut Teiman 1 T.A. 1945 history of Yemenite Jews; various booklets with this name concerning Yemenites issued in years 1940–44 Shibbolim F. N.Y. 1909 lit.; the first modern lit. journal in U.S.; 7 issues Shittuf M., B-M. T.A. 1948 organ of the central cooperative of the Histadrut Shivat Ẓiyyon A. Jer. 1950–1956 history of Zionism and the yishuv; 3 vols. (one double) Shomer Ẓiyyon ha-Ne'eman Irr. Altona 1846–1856 rabbinics, Orthodox; 222 issues, new reprint Shorashim Irr. Jer. 1936–1953 teachers' platform for Keren ha-Kayemeth Shoval Q. T.A. 1962–1967 20 issues; public council for culture and art Shulamit F. Jer. 1935 women's magazine Shurot Irr. Beltsy, Bessarabia 1935–1937 lit. Shurot Irr. T.A. 1938 organ of clerks-office workers M. Si'aḥ Irr. T.A. 1969 New Left in Israel Sifrei Sha'ashu'im Irr. Cracow-Buczacz, Galicia 1896–1899 lit. Sifrut – see also: Ha-Sifrut Irr. Warsaw 1908–1909 lit.; 4 issues Sifrut Ẓe'irah W. Jer. 1939 lit.; organ of young writers Signon B-M. T.A. 1970 architecture and interior design Sikkot W. T.A. 1940–1945 humor Sinai A. Bucharest 1928–1933 Judaic studies; 5 vols Sinai M. Jer. 1937 Judaic studies, rabbinics Sport ba-Olam – see also: Ha-Sport M. T.A. 1964–1965 sport Sport ha-Am B-M. T.A. 1947–1959 sport; from 1951 W., from 1959 included in Davar Sport ha-Boker W. T.A. 1936 sport; separate sport edition of Ha-Boker, afterward included in Ha-Boker Sport ha-Shavu'a W. T.A. 1947–1948 sport Sport Kadduregel W. T.A. 1965–1966 soccer Sport ve-Toto W. T.A. 1968–1969 sport and Toto (lottery) Sport Yisrael W. T.A. 1949–1954 sport Sugyot 1 Givat Ḥavivah 1956 collection of studies from the Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir on Jewish and general problems Sullam M. Jer. 1949–1964 theoretical organ of Leḥi members and their adherents in Ereẓ Israel Sura A. Jer. 1954–1964 Judaic studies; 4 vols. Ta'asiyyah u-Misḥar M. Jer. 1959 industry and trade Ta'asiyyah ve-Khalkalah M. Jer. 1937–1941 industry and economics Tafrit M. T.A. 1949–1953 entertainment – army Tagim 1 Bene-Berak 1969 bibliography Taḥbiv M. T.A. 1962–1963, hobbies 1970 Taḥburah ve-Tayyarut M. T.A. 1962 transport and tourism Taḥkemoni Irr. Berne-Berlin-Jer. 1910–1911 Judaic studies; 2 issues Talpioth Q. N.Y. 1943–1963 rabbinics and Judaic studies   Newspapers, Hebrew Talpiyyot 1 Berdichev, Ukraine 1895 lit.; largest collection of its kind issued in those days Talpiyyot W. Jassy (Iasi), Romania 1898 lit.; Zionist Tambir Q. T.A. 1960 costing and business economics TaRAV(Tav Resh-Ayin-Vav) 1 Jer. 1916 Ereẓ Israel and Jerusalem in World War I Tarbiz Q. Jer. 1930 Judaic studies; in the first years also humanities Tarbut M. N.Y. 1919–1920 education Tarbut M. Warsaw 1922–1924 Hebrew culture and education Tarbut B-M. London 1944–1968 lit.; from 1940 under various names Tashbeẓ F., Irr. T.A.-Nahariyyah-Ramat Gan 1954 crossword Tav-Shin A. T.A. 1943–1956 lit.; almanacs of Davar, some under different names Taẓlil A. Haifa 1960 music research and bibliography Te'atron M. T.A. 1953–1954 theater Te'atron B-M. Haifa 1962–1966 theater Te'atron ve-Ommanut M. T.A.-Jer. 1925–1928 theater and art Tefuẓot Yisrael B-M. Jer. 1962 Jewish life in the Diaspora Teḥiyyah – see also: Ha-Teḥiyyah M. N.Y. 1913 lit. Teḥumim Q. Warsaw 1937–1938 lit. Tekhnikah u-Madda M. T.A. 1937–1954 popular science Tekhunat ha-Ru'aḥ ha-Yisre'eli 1 N.Y. 1889 lit. Tekufatenu Q. London 1932–1933 lit. Tekumah Irr. N.Y. 1938–1939 education and J.N.F. Telamim Irr., Q. T.A. 1933 organ of the moshav movement Telegramot Aḥaronot D. T.A. 1941 independent afternoon paper Tel-Talpiyyot F., Irr. Vac, Hungary 1892–1938 rabbinics; interruption during years 1921–22 Temurot M. T.A. 1938 General Zionist Labor movement, afterward Liberal Teraklin M. T.A. 1949–1965 lit. and entertainment Terapyah Shimmushit M. Petaḥ Tikvah 1965 physiotherapy Terumah 1 T.A. 1925 lit.; Hebrew writers for J.N.F. Tesha ba-Erev – see: Ha-Olam ha-Zeh Tesha Tesha Tesha Irr. T.A. 1953–1957 police (named after the tel. no 999) Te'urah Q. Chicago 1944–1946 education Tevai Q. T.A. 1965 architecture, town planning, plastic art Teva u-Veri'ut Q. Petaḥ Tikvah 1956 organ of vegetarians and naturalists Teva va-Areẓ – see: Ha-teva ve-ha-Areẓ Tevunah Irr. Memel-Koenigsberg, E. Prussia 1861 rabbinics; organ of the Musar movement Tevunah Irr. Kovno, Lithuania 1922–1924 rabbinics 1928 Tevunah W., F. Jer. 1932–1933 religious 1941–1958 Torah mi-Ẓiyyon Irr. Jer. 1886–1906 rabbinics Torat Ereẓ Yisrael M. Jer. 1930–1955 rabbinics; some interruptions Torat ha-Areẓ Irr. Petaḥ Tikvah 1935–1938 rabbinics Turim W. T.A. 1933–1934 lit. 1938–1939 Udim Irr. Beltsy, Bessarabia 1939 lit. Urim Irr. T.A. 1935–1966 education organ of Ha-Merkaz le-Ḥinnukh of the Histadrut; M. M. from 1953 Urim le-Horim Irr. & M. T.A. 1946 education problems for parents; M. from 1954   Newspapers, Hebrew Uvdot u-Misparim M. Jer. 1947–1969 facts and figures of the Keren Hayesod and the U.J.A. Uzzenu A. T.A. 1949–1948 sport annual of Hapoel Uzzenu F. &M. T.A. 1933–1935 sport organ of Hapoel Va'ad Ḥakhamim M. Jer. 1923–1924 rabbinics Va-Yelakket Yosef F. Bonyhad-Munkacs, Hungary 1899–1918 rabbinics WIZO… – see Ha-Ishah be-Yisrael Ya'ad Irr. T.A. 1962 organ of Ha-No'ar ha-Oved ha-Le'ummi Yadan Ma'ariv A. T.A. 1956 Ma'ariv annual Yad la-Koré B-M. T.A. 1943–1944 bibliography and librarianship Yad la-Koré Q. T.A.-Jer. 1946 bibliography and librarianship Yad la-Safran – see: Alim le-Bibliografyah u-le-Safranut Yad Vashem – see also: Yedi'ot Yad A. Jer. 1957 research on the Holocaust and Resistance Vashem Yagdil Torah Irr. Odessa, Russia 1879–1885 rabbinics Yagdil Torah Irr. Berlin 1890–1893 rabbinics Yagdil Torah W. &M. Slutsk, Belorussia 1908–1928 rabbinics; with interruptions; the last rabbinical periodical in Russia B-M. & Irr. Yagdil Torah Irr. London 1949–1959 rabbinics Yagdil Torah Irr. T.A. 1962–1965 history of Polish Jewry; Hebrew and Yiddish; 2 issues Yaḥdav M. &Irr. T.A. 1953 Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad brigade Yalkut ha-Mikhvarot Irr. T.A. 1949–1966 bee breeding Yalkut ha-Mizraḥ ha-Tikhon M. Jer. 1935–1951 Middle East affairs Yalkut ha-Re'im Irr. T.A. 1942–1946 lit.; organ of young writers; 4 issues Yalkut Ma'aravi A. N.Y. 1904 lit. Yalkut Magen Irr. T.A. 1956 organ of the Association to Help Soviet Russian Jewry Yalkut Moreshet S-A. T.A. 1963 research on the Holocaust; organ of the M. Anielewicz Institute for & A. Research on the Holocaust at Yad Mordekha Yalkut Tekhni B-M. T.A. 1955–1960 institute for work productivity and production Yalkut Vohlin Irr. T.A. 1945 history of Volhynian Jews Yarhon ha-Avodah – see also: Ha- M. T.A. 1949–1958 labor and social security (National Insurance) Yarḥon Yarḥon ha-Ḥazzanim M. Czestochowa, Poland 1896 song, music, ḥazzanut; the first of its kind in Hebrew; 4 issues Yarḥon ha-No'ar ha-Musikali be-Yisrael M. T.A. 1957–1961 music for youth Yarḥon ha-Sport M. T.A. 1960–1961 sport Yarḥon Statisti la-Shetaḥim ha- M. T.A. 1971 statistics figures on the occupied territories Muḥzakim Yarḥon Statisti le-Yisrael M. &Q. T.A.-Jer. 1949 statistical figures on all walks of life in Israel; some appendices Yavneh M. Lvov, Galicia 1929–1931 Judaic studies and lit. Yavneh A. Jer. 1939–1942 Judaic studies; 3 vols. Yavneh Irr. Jer. 1946–1949 organ of religious academicians Yeda Am Irr. T.A. 1948 folklore Yedi'on – see: Shenaton Yedi'ot Aḥaronot Yedi'on ha-Aguddah le-Gerontologyah Irr. T.A. 1945 gerontology Yedi'ot A. Jer. 1959–1966 religious music; 8 vols. Yedi'ot Aḥaronot D. T.A. 1939 independent   Newspapers, Hebrew Yedi'ot Arkhiyyon u-Muze'on ha-Avodah Irr. T.A. 1933–1951 history of the labor movement in Ereẓ Israel Yedi'ot Beit Loḥamei ha-Getta'ot Irr. Haifa 1951–1960 Holocaust research; organ of the Isaac Katznelson Institute for research on the Holocaust at kibbutz Loḥamei ha-getta'ot Yedi'ot Ereẓ ve-Emunah Irr. T.A. 1954 religious J.N.F. Yedi'ot Genazim Irr. T.A. 1962 documentation material on the history of Hebrew literature by the Genazim Institute Yedi'ot ha-Ḥevrah le-Ḥakirat Ereẓ Yisrael va-Attikoteha Q. Jer. 1933–1967 archaeology of Palestine and Bible lands; superseded by Kadmoniyyot Yedi'ot ha-Makhon le-Ḥeker ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit Irr. Berlin-Jer. 1933–1958 research on Hebrew poetry during the Middle Ages; from 4 vols.; in Jer. 7 vols. Yedi'ot ha-Makhon le-Madda'ei ha-Yahadut Q. Jer. 1925 the first publication of the Judaic Institute of the Hebrew University; 2 issues; superseded by Madda'ei ha-Yahadut Yedi'ot ha-Mazkirut Irr. T.A. 1947 Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad secretariat; appeared under various names Yedi'ot ha-Tenu'ah le-Aḥdut ha-Avodah – see: Aḥdut ha-Avodah Yedi'ot Taḥanat ha-Nissayon Q. Reḥovot-T.A. 1926–1931 agricultural research station of the Zionist movement; 4 vols. 1936–1938 Yedi'ot Yad Vashem Q. & Irr. Jer. 1954 Holocaust research; Yad Vashem, Jer. Yehudah vi-Yerushalayim Irr. Jer. 1877–1878 newspaper interrupted by the editors on occasion of the founding of Petaḥ Tikvah; motif of settling Ereẓ Israel; new ed. 1955 Yerushalayim A. Zolkiew-Lvov 1844–1845 lit. Yerushalayim A. & Irr. Vienna-Jer. 1882–1919 Palestinography and history of Ereẓ Israel; 13 vols.; the first of its kind in Hebrew Yerushalayim B-M. Cracow, Poland 1900–1901 bibliography Yerushalayim 1 Jer. 1913 lit.; dedicated to Jerusalem Yerushalayim Q. Jer. 1947–1955 history of Ereẓ Israel and Jerusalem Yerushalayim A. Jer. 1965 lit.; the collection which was issued in 1968 was called Ve-li-Yrushalayim; a gift to those who fought in the Six-Day War Yeshurun (Jeschurun) A. Lvov-Breslau-Bamberg 1856–1878 Judaic studies; 9 vols.; partly in German Yeshurun M. Bucharest 1920–1923 lit. and Judaic studies Yokhani Irr. T.A. 1961–1967 lit.; 7 issues Yosef Da'at F. Andianople, Turkey 1888–1889 Judaic studies; partly in Ladino Yuval 1 Jer. 1968 studies in Jewish music Ẓarekhanut Shittufit M. T.A. 1959–1969 economics and cooperatives; afterward incorporated into Davar Ẓelilim M. Jer. 1940–1941 music and art; 6 issues Ẓelil va-Omer Q. Haifa 1957–1962 music for youth; 21 issues Zemannim D. Jer. 1953–1955 Progressives newspaper Zera'im M. Jer.-T.A. 1936 organ of Bnei Akiva, Mizrachi youth, the first two years irregular Zeramim W. Vilna 1931–1932 lit. Ẓeror Mikhtavim Irr. T.A. 1933–1951 organ of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad; continuation of Iggerot mi-Bifenim 1929–1934 Ẓeror Mikhtavim li-She'elot ha-Ḥinnukh ha-Meshuttaf Irr. T.A. 1938 pedagogical organ of Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad; change of names Zikhoronot Devrim shel ha-Aguddah ha-Mediẓinit ha-Ivrit Irr. Jaffa 1912–1914 the first medical journal in Hebrew; 5 issues (one double) Zikhronot ha-Akademyah la-Lashon ha-Ivrit A. Jer. 1949 Hebrew language studies; until 1954; memoirs of Va'ad ha-Lashon Ẓiklon M. T.A. 1953–1963 included later in Ma'arekhet; world newspaper translations for soldiers Ẓillum – see: Ha-Ẓillum Ẓilẓelei Shama 1 Kharkov, Ukraine 1923 lit.; the only literary publication in Hebrew printed and edited in U.S.S.R.   Newspapers, Hebrew Zimrat ha-Areẓ Q. Jassy (Iasi), Romania 1872 lit. Zion Q. Jer. 1936 history of Jews Zion, Me'assef A. Jer. 1926–1934 history and ethnography of Jews; 6 vols. Zion, Yedi'ot M. Jer. 1929–1931 folklore and ethnography of Jews; 11 issues Ẓippor ha-Nefesh W. T.A. 1964–1965 humor and satire Ẓiyyon Irr. & Drohobycz, 1885, 1888 lit. M. Galicia 1896–1897 Ẓiyyon A. Frankfurt 1841–1842 lit.; 2 vols. Ẓiyyon he-Ḥadash 1 Leipzig 1845 lit. Zo ha-Derekh W. T.A.– 1965 organ of Rakaḥ Zohar M. Buenos Aires 1961–1964 lit.; joined later with Darom Zot ha-Areẓ T.A. 1968 organ of the Greater Israel Movement (Getzel Kressel)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hebrew calendar — The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha luach ha ivri), or Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah… …   Wikipedia

  • Hebrew language — Hebrew redirects here. For other uses, see Hebrew (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Yiddish language. Hebrew עִבְרִית …   Wikipedia

  • Hebrew punctuation — Hebrew specific marks orthographically similar marks maqaf ־ …   Wikipedia

  • HEBREW LITERATURE, MODERN — definition and scope beginnings periodization …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HEBREW LANGUAGE — This entry is arranged according to the following scheme: pre biblical biblical the dead sea scrolls mishnaic medieval modern period A detailed table of contents precedes each section. PRE BIBLICAL nature of the evidence the sources phonology… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HEBREW GRAMMAR — The following entry is divided into two sections: an Introduction for the non specialist and (II) a detailed survey. [i] HEBREW GRAMMAR: AN INTRODUCTION There are four main phases in the history of the Hebrew language: the biblical or classical,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hebrew Union College — Infobox University name = Hebrew Union College Jewish Institute of Religion motto = image size =153 × 138 pixel established =1875 type =Private endowment = staff = faculty = president =Rabbi David Ellenson undergrad = postgrad = doctoral = city… …   Wikipedia

  • Hebrew spelling — There are several systems of Hebrew spelling that are used. The Hebrew alphabet contains 22 letters, all of which are primarily consonants. This is because the Hebrew script is an abjad, that is, its letters indicate consonant, not syllables. An… …   Wikipedia

  • List of newspapers in Israel — This is a list of newspapers in Israel. This list focuses on printed newspapers only and does not list other news sources, such as online sites or radio and TV channels. Most newspapers in Israel are published in Hebrew, but there are also… …   Wikipedia

  • PARODY, HEBREW — Parody in Early Hebrew Literature Parody is the use of a recognizable literary form as a vehicle to ridicule or mock something or someone. The writer takes a well known, serious work as his model and invests it with new and amusing contents, at… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.